Bcom 1st Year Oral Presentation and Principles of Oral Presentation
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Q.36. what is meant by or at Presentation? Discuss the factors affecting the oral presentation.
MEANING OF ORAL PRESENTATION
Oral presentation refers to a speech presented before a group of audience to tell about a product, idea or service etc. In the oral presentation, a person expresses his views in his own words on the
Business executives have to make number of oral presentations on different occasions like training employees, introducing new product and to convince the audience to buy the product or or service
or to accept the new idea. It is an effective way of oral communication.
PURPOSE OF PRESENTATION
Main purposes of oral presentation can be summarized as follows:
(1) To provide information’s: The main object of presentation is to inform or teach the audience regarding new products, new schemes or new proposals etc. Training presentations provide information’s to the new-comers about the organizational policies and procedures while sales presentation inform the audience about the features of new product.
(2) To persuade the audience: The second purpose of presentation is to persuade the audience to act or to believe in particular way. For example sales presentations persuade the people to buy new things or to promote the sales.
(3) To Build Goodwill: Oral presentations are held to build, maintain and increase the goodwill of the firm. It makes the image of the products in the mind and heart of the customers.
The capacity to present his views effectively and clearly is an important skill. Speech in an art, for this there are no fixed rules which can be uniformly followed always and in all circumstances.
There are a number of factors which influence effective oral presentation. Main factors which affect the effectiveness of the presentation can be summarized as follows:
(1) Audience Analysis: If the speaker has analyzed the audience in proper way before presentation, his presentation will be one effective. The more you know about your audience, the more
effective presentation you can make. The style of the presentation is largely depend upon the type and size of the audience.
(2) Language and words: To make the presentation effective, speaker should choose the catchy words that appeal to the heart and emotions of the audience. Suitable examples, analogies
and word pictures make the presentation, effective and interesting. To make the message understandable, the speaker has to talk in the language known to the audience.
(3) Communication environment : Proper arrangement of physical things surrounding the speaker such as the stage, lighting arrangement, back ground etc. also enhance the impact of the presentation.
(4) Organization of presentation: Clarity in presentation is essential that comes with proper organization of the information. Organizing the information if proper manner can make the message more understandable, keep the audience happy and boost the image of the speaker.
(5) Quality of voice: The speaker’s voice puts a deep impression on the presentation. When a speaker adjusts his voice according to the size of audience and environmental Factors, he can express
his view effectively. Control on the speed of voice, change in speed according to the need of subject matter, stress on specific points, adjustment in the pitch etc. enhance the effectiveness of presentation.
If these are not well coordinated, the presentation becomes ineffective.
(6) Body language: The effectiveness of the presentation is also affected by the body language of the speaker. According to experts, words affect only 10% of the message, tone is responsible for
40% and rest 50% is affected by body language. Various forms of body language affect the presentation in the following ways:
(i) Personal appearance : Personal appearance of the speaker has great impact on the audience. Therefore, the speaker should wear neat and clean clothes and take time to check his appearance just before starting presentation.
(ii) Postures : Ways of sitting, standing and lying down also malice a great impact on the presentation. Change in posture in accordance with subject matter makes the presentation effective. If a speaker stands in a same posture during presentation, then it makes the presentation ineffective. While presentation you should look comfortable, natural, alert and attentive.
(iii) Movement: Taking a few steps, depending upon the need of presentation enhance the effectiveness of presentation. However, too much walking carries negative impressions.
(iv) Facial expressions: Facial expressions and eye contact also affect the presentation. Facial expression should be according to the subject matter and circumstances. A speaker who looked more at the audience is judged as better informed, more experienced,. more honest and friendliest than speaker who delivers the speech with less eye contact. With eye contact, audience feels that speaker is talking to them.
(v) Gestures: The oral presentation should be make effective with the graceful movement of head, shoulders, arms or hands. The effect of your ideas can be enhanced with proper gestures Coordination.
(7) Cognitive barriers : More similar will be the feelings, opinions, attitudes, behavior and experience of both the presenter and audience, the more effective will be the presentation. On the
contrary, presentation becomes ineffective.
(8) Answering Questions: The effectiveness of presentation is also affected by speaker’s skill in handling questions asked at the end of presentation. A speaker who answers the audience’s questions with tact is likely to influence the audience more.
Q.37. what is meant by oral presentation? Discuss the main principles of oral presentation.
State the meaning, Objectives and principles of Presentation.
MEANING OF PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
Following are the essential principles of good oral presentation:
(I) Principle of definite purpose: The purpose of the presentation should be absolutely clear and defined in the mind of the speaker. Therefore, it should be decided first that what the object of presentation is: to inform, to encourage, to entertain or to persuade the audience.
(2) Principle of confidence: There must be mutual confidence between the speaker and the audience. It leads to effective communication and effective listening.
(3) Principle of clarity: Clarity of message is the first and foremost important among princinles. Clarity can be achieved by using simple words, short sentences and common words. Language
and flow of presentation should be very clear to understand and follow.
(4) Principle of source of information: The sources of information used in the presentation should be reliable and the audience should be informed about the source to increase their confidence.
(5) Principle of adequacy: The length of a good speech should neither be too brief nor too long. If the speech is too long it will fail to sustain the interest of audience for long time. If it is too
brief it may end even before it exercises to hold once the attention of the listeners. Speaker should express his ideas in a lucid manner and talking most relevant to the topic.
(6) Principle of attracting attention: Drawing the attention of audience is must for the effective presentation. For achieving this purpose, matter of presentation should be related to the needs
of the audience. Questions and comments from the audience may also be invited from time to time so that the presentation may be participate.
(7) Principle of arousing interest: Oral presentation should be presented in such a way which arise the interest of the veneers. A good presentation should be interesting and – should not only appeal to the mind of the listeners also to their hearts.
(8) Principle of Empathy: The presenter should put himself in the place of audience while doing the presentation. This brings about a similar opinion and creates mutual understanding.
(9) Principle of Rehearsal: Before presentation one should rehearsal at least thrice. This increases self confidence and makes the presentation easier.
(10) Principle of developing main idea: Main idea of the )presentation should be selected beforehand. It makes the presentation easier and interesting.
(11) Principle of friendliness: Speaker has to make efforts make an atmosphere of friendliness. Interest, originality, nauseas etc. are the main factors which help in creating friendly atmosphere.
(12) Principle of closing: The way offending the presentation as made great impact on the audience. At the end, the main points hold be revised which will enable the audience to remember the
basic thoughts of the presentation.
Q.38. What is meant by Speech ? How can speech be made effective ?
What is meant by speech for motivation? How can you prepared speech for this purpose?
MEANING OF SPEECH
In oral communication, speech is a widely adopted tool of communication. Speech is an art through which we can influence people and make acquaint to them with our views. Knowledge, feelings and emotions. When a speaker communicate his views in simple and touching language along with body language and para language, then he gets success, to attract the people.
Speeches are the indispensable part of business communication. Everyday business executives and employees have to make formal as well as informal speeches. Executives have to make speeches
at company meetings, seminars, conferences etc. Sales employees have to make hundreds of mini presentations to persuade the potential customers to buy. The chairman has to deliver speech at the annual general meeting of the company. However, speeches and presentation involve the same fundamental principles of oral communication, but speeches are more formal and lengthy in comparison to presentations.
SPEECH FOR MOTIVATION
The speech which encourage or peruse the audience to actor think according the words of speech, is termed as speech for motivation.
According to Stanley Vance,
“Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions ones will that individual is propelled into action. ”
Business executives have to make speeches to motivate subordinates for high performance and productivity. These motivational speeches are Planned in the same way as other speeches are
planned, but the only difference is that of purpose. Other speeches may aim at informing the audience or building goodwill, but motivational speeches aim at motivating the audience.
PREPARATION OF SPEECH FOR MOTIVATION
Before delivering motivational speech, the speaker should understand the motives of the members of the audience. Generally, a person is motivated when he has some need or want. Motives are the
inner urges of an individual that channelize him to work. Therefore, before preparing a speech, the needs of the audience should be found. Following things should be kept in mind while preparing a
speech for motivation :
(1) Find out the needs of audience : Before delivering the motivational speech, speaker should analyze the level of needs of the audience. For example, lower level employees want job security,
hike in wages, housing facility etc. On the other hand higher level employees want to learn and excel more. Therefore, each type of audience needs and wants should be considered.
(2) To determine the stimulus: After finding the needs of the audience, stimulus should be determined to satisfy the inner urge of the individuals. It should be determined that what can fulfil
the audience’s needs? All persons cannot be motivated by monetary benefits put post, respect, Fame also motivate them. Actually motivators of a person can be decided only by knowing his needs and
(3) Inclusion of stimulus in the speech: In motivating speech, such topics or information should also be included which make the way to satisfy the needs and wants of the audience. If the solutions of their problems are discussed then the support and sympathy of the audience can be easily achieved.
(4) Use of effective presentation skill: While delivering the speech, the speaker should be careful about his voice, body language and eye contact. Speaker should use catchy words or quotations to
stress his views. He should give a positive, powerful, energetic and driving speech and use effective presentation skills to motivate the people.
(5) Emotional Appeal: In some speeches there is lack of logic and intellect therefore there should be an emotional appeal in the speech so that positive response can be taken from the audience.
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. What is meant by Sales Presentation? Describe the steps of sales presentation.
MEANING OF SALES PRESENTATION
Sales presentation are persuasive presentation, made by a salesman to convince the audience to buy the product and services of the company. In the sales presentation, a salesman stands in front or the middle of a group of people and tells them about his product. He tries to find the need of the prospective customers, clarifies their doubts, answer their questions and demonstrate how the product
can satisfy their needs.
In sales presentation, the sales man used audio-visual devices to demonstrate the product, highlight its qualities and clear all the doubts of prospective customers so as to motivate them to purchase
the product. In sales presentation, salesman expands 30% time in demonstrating the product and its qualities and 70% of his time in effectively satisfying and resolving the queries of customers.
Sales presentation can be of two types:
1. Persuasive presentation.
2. Goodwill presentation.
In persuasive presentation, salesman stimulates the buyers to trust on any idea/service or product so as to motivate them to purchase.
Goodwill presentation is done for the recreation of consumers or to gain the support of consumers. It creates the image of product or organization in the minds of audience.
STEPS OF SALES PRESENTATION
A sales presentation can be completed in the following steps:
(1) Introduction: In this part, salesman tries to draw the attention of the listener towards the product. Presentation starts with introductory lecture in which listener are welcomed. Then the objective of the speech is made clear by expressing the intention of the seller before the prospective buyers. After that, main points of the presentation are put before the listeners.
(2) Text or Body of the presentation: Salesman put various proofs and evidences to establish the central idea of the presentation. He explain the need of the product or service\and make emote the listeners to motivate them t.Q buy tional and product or service. There may be various kinds of emotional or rational appeals as every. Person has a different attitude towards a
particular thing or product. For Example : attractive look, color, security, economic gain, time saving, bonus, gifts etc may be the buyers choice and therefore they would be motivated by such appeal
which suits to their attitude.
(3) Effective planning and use of Audio-Video devices: Use of audio-video devices are considered better to create interest among the listeners towards the product. Such devices provide a professional outlook to the presentation and also help him to convince the listeners easily. Through audio-visual presentation, number of questions or queries can be reduced.
(4) Summary and conclusion: In this part, the” salesman repeats the main points and promise the audience to provide after sale services and tries to create the feeling of satisfaction. The
presentation should be concluded with a positive note by referring to why and how to use the concerned product.
Q.2. Write a short note on Survey.
Ans. A survey is a method of collecting information on a topic or a problem. In the present world, surveys and research are conducted to gather various facts about economic, social, natural and political
areas. Management have to gather some information about the market to their successful working. Survey can be related to the emerging competition, fall in sales, advertisement, to decide about a
new product etc.
In surveys we collect facts, examine them and try to find the solution to various problems on definite topics. In surveys, data is collected and then simplified with the help of statistical methods.
Surveys help the management in evaluating the results of the present policies and to make decisions for future. Census and sampling are the two main technique of conducting surveys. Survey also
prove helpful to study the economic, social, natural, political and natural factors affecting the firm.
Q.3. State the meaning of Training Presentation. How training presentation can be made effective ?
Ans. Training presentation is generally a formal and informative presentation that teaches listeners how to do something. This type of presentation is made before new employees with a view to
train them so that they can perform their work more efficiently. Through this, senior executives impart knowledge to the promoted managers about the roles and responsibilities of new job etc.
HOW TO MAKE TRAINING PRESENTATION EFFECTIVE?
The following strategy should be adopted for the effective training presentation :
(1) The presenter should cover only essential information and avoid giving unnecessary details ,
(2) The presenter should link Chef topic to the needs of the audience. He tells them about the benefits they get by listening to that topic.
(3) Involvement of audience is also necessary so that audience can not feel bored.
(4) The message should star with overall picture, emphasize the important points and end with summering of main points.
(5) While delivering the training presentation, First try to catch the audience attention, then take care of voice, body language, audio visuals aids and answer queries of audience to their satisfaction.
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