B com 1st year Basic Forms of Communication

B com 1st year Basic Forms of Communication



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B com 1st year Basic Forms of Communication:-

Basic Forms of communication


Q.4. Explain the basic forms of communication.
In an organization several methods, channels and dimensions are used to pass the message from one person to the other. Communication process helps in understanding the way through which a person can convey his message. The success of an institution or organization depends to a large extent on the system of communication. Various types of communication can be classified as follows:

Forms of communication




The method or way of conveying and exchanging one’s ideas, opinions and emotions is known as communication medium. Keeping in view the objects and utility of the message, different modes
are used in conveying the message. The different media used in communication may be classified as follows:
(1) Verbal Communication : Communication through spoken and written words is known as verbal communication. In other words, when messiah is treated by sender to receiver with the help of words spo en or written, it is called as verbal communication. The process of communication involves the use of conunon set of symbols between the sender and the recipient. Words are most accurate and powerful set of symbols, therefore most of the communication takes place through words. Verbal communication can be of two types :
(i) Oral Communication : When communication is done by words spoken, it is called oral Communication as this communication, exchange of opinions is done through face to face Communication or through some mechanical device. Oral communication takes place in different ways such as personal talks, speeches, interviews, seminars, telephone talks etc. In the oral communication, receiver also comes to know the body language of the sender. If the receiver cannot understand the message, he can also get clarified at once from the sender. Oral communication is speedy, saves time, provide immediate feed backed provides better understanding by removing doubts and fears.
(ii) Written Communication: Exchange of messages in written or ranted form is known as written communication. This type of communication takes place in different ways such as letters, memos,
reports, notices, circulars, magazines etc. It needs utmost care while preparing the written message. The choice of words should be done carefully in written communication and the words should be such so
as to convey a specific meaning. In the modern age, need and importance of written communication is increasing day by day.
(2) Non-verbal Communication: Any communication without the use of words is known as non-verbal communication. It is a process of communication in which transmission of messages is
done ‘through facial expressions, body 15ouctens, eye contacts, appearance, silence etc. Studies reveal that more than 65% of human communication is done through non-verbal clues. It makes verbal
communication complete and more effective. By using non-verbal form of communication, a person can express his feelings to others quickly and economically. Raising eyebrows, lines on the forehead,
raising hands, shaking the head, smiling, clapping etc. communicate much more than words. While communicating it should be remembered that the way of speaking is as important as what you speak. Infect one expert contends that only 7% of the impact of our face to face communication comes from the words we spoke, the other 93% comes from our vocal intonations, facial expressions, posture and appearance. Non-verbal communication can be classified as follows:
(i) Body Language or Kinesics: The study of message conveyed by body movements is known as body language. Just as language uses symbols to convey message, our body movements convey messages such as rubbing the nose for feeling tense, putting the hand on forehead for distress, raising hand by a traffic policeman to stop the traffic etc. are the examples of body language. Body language helps to complete the verbal communication. Man may play with words but his body movements speaks the truth,

(ii) Sign Language : It is a method in which different signs, pictures, signals, colors are used to convey the message. Signs can be of two types—Audio signs and Visual signs. Audio sign include
buzzers, electric bells, sirens, and hooters etc. which produce different sounds to convey the message. For example hooting of siren in a factory immediately makes the workers active. Visual signs such as
posters; cartoons, pictures, colors etc. are used to convey message for general information and education. People all over the world recognize what the traffic lights red, yellow and green. The symbol
of two crossed bones below a skull means danger and a crossed cigarette means no smoking.
(iii) Para Language : In the Para ‘language tone .of voice, pitch, rhythm, volume, break in sentences etc. are used to convey the message. In Para language, we examine the sound of someone
speech. Voice tells us so much about. the speaker sex, background, education and temperament. Clearer the voice is more effective will be the communication. In the same way, stress on different words
changes the meaning of message every time. For example, in a sentence you may go’ if stress is laid on the word go then it shows anger. With the help of Para language mental situation of a person
can be studied easily.


On the basis of direction of flow of communication, it can be classified as under :
(1) Vertical Communication : Every organization has a hierarchical Jinee of authority along which runs a communication channel used for transmitting all written and oral messages. When message flow from higher authorities to subordinates or from subordinates to higher authorities along with different levels of organization structure is known as vertical communication. In this type of communication, along the scalar chain for example, Board Of Director (highest authority of the organization) passes his orders and direction to the Managing director and Managing director passes on necessary and relevant information to departmental managers, who in turn, issue instructions to supervisors. Vertical communication can be of two forms:

(i) Downward Communication: When message is transmitted from higher authorities to subordinates and lower class of employees, it is known as downward communication. Through this
managers provide information’s to his subordinates regarding the policies, plans and programmers of the enterprise, Orders, bulletin, job-sheets, manuals, guidelines are its main examples. It can be
shown as follows:
Maffaging Director
General Manager
Departmental Manager




(ii) Upward Communication: When message is transmitted from subordinates to higher authorities then it is known as upward communication. This communication system is usually used to communicate the problems grievances, suggestions and reactions of workers to managers. For the success of this system, it is necessary to have open decor policy, management-workers meetings, participation attitude in the business etc. This system increases the morale and productivity of workers.
(2) Lateral or Horizontal communication: When come linked medication takes place between two or more person they each other by equal status 0! Equal y of relationship. The meeting of General Managers of vaiious units of Thé Company, communication between territorial sales managers is the examples of
Horizontal communication. The main objective of this communication is to establish co-ordination in the business so that works and decisions are fulfilled quickly and efficiently.
(3) Diagonal Communication: The. Transfer of information among people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organizational hierarchy is called diagonal come communication. In other words it refers to the interchange of messages among the persons located act different levels of hierarchy and out. Side the direct chain of command. When the assistant Finance manager communicates with the accounts clerk directly is an example of diagonal communication. Diagonal flow of communication short-circuits the rigid chain of command. Informal meeting, lunch hour meeting, conference project organization meeting etc. are the main media of this type of communication.


Communication on the basis of organizational structure may be classified into two categories formal and informal.
(i) Formal Communication: Formal communication is closely associated with a formal organizational structure. Under this system the message flows according $0 a fixed and prescribed way. -It follows the pre-decided procedures, rules and quite off on the transmission of messages; Formal channel of communication recognizes superior and subordinate positions and relationship. This system ensures flow of information in a planned route smoothly, accurately and timely. Infect, this communication
takes place between two positions and not between persons.
(ii) Informal Communication: It is not a planned or deliberately created channel of communication. Jus free from all. Formal organization chart is followed to convey the messages. It is based on the informal relation of the two persons. Body language is a so used in informal communication like Go show
anger, to smile, to remain silent etc. It is most flexible and speedy channel of communication. But this type of communication is difficult to control and often create miss-understanding.
Q.5. Explain the comparative study of oral and written communication.
Discuss advantages and disadvantages of oral and written communication.       

Ans. Oral Communication: It is one of the earliest as well as the most widely practiced medium of communication. Oral communication is the form of communication in which message is transmitted in spoken words. In oral communication, the process is a face to face conversation and mechanical devices can also be used like telephone, internet etc. It may take place in different ways such as
personal talks, telephonic conversation, seminars, interviews, speeches etc. Oral communication saves time and provides immediate feedback. In a face to face conversation, doubts, clarifications,
explanations and questions can be asked and answered at once in this process of communication, the receiver also come to know the body language of the sender.

According to Vile, “In the process of communication, verbal communication is best one, because along with words, body language is also used in this form of communication with the result that
receiver can easily know the feelings of sender.”
Oral communication is a speedy, economic, flexible, clear and effective method of communication. But oral communication is not recommended in which formal record is required and when communication is lengthy and distant.


(1) Speedy and simple method: Oral communication is very fast, simple and economical method of communication. It saves the time involved in writing the message and also saves the money spent
on stationery in an organization.
(2) Flexibility: Oral communication is characterized with high level of flexibility. The speaker can adjust his message and tone according to the situation. He is also free to modify or withdraw his
(3) Personal touch: Oral communication proves helpful in making healthy climate in the organization by bringing superiors and subordinates closer. Both the sides can understand each other
fully and clearly. It helps in developing mutual faith and understanding
(4) Immediate Response: The main advantage of oral commutation is that it provides immediate response to both the sender and the receiver. Each can ask questions for clarification and doubts
can be removed at once. The speaker can easily understand the reaction of the audience.
(5) More effective: Oral communication is more effective in its nature as body language is used along with the words. It can be made even more effective at different times by the feelings of happiness, anger, respect etc.
(6) Secrecy: It is easier to keep oral messages secret because no record of communication generally maintained.

(7) Useful for group discussion: Oral communication proves helpful for communicating the groups. Therefore, this type of communication is widely used in meetings, seminars and conferences
where different people can interact with each other.
(8) Participative management: Oral communication promotes participative management system. All persons concerned with an issue are invited to discuss it and taking appropriate decisions.



(1) No-record: Oral communication provides no record for future reference. In the absence of record, oral message have no legal validity.
(2) Presence of both parties: Oral communication becomes possible only when the both parties are present. If receiver is not present, density of oral communication is lost.
(3) Poor retention power: The listener cannot retain oral messages in his memory for a long time The speaker himself may not recall what he actually said.
(4) Unsuitable for lengthy messages: When message is lengthy, then oral communication is not suitable because the chances of its misunderstanding and forgetting are very high. Lengthy
message fail to retain listeners attention so the oral communication fails.
(5) Lack of responsibility: Since oral messages have no proof, it becomes difficult to hold person responsible for mistakes, inaccuracy, and untruth in oral communication.
(6) Lack of responsibility: Usually, people take less care while speaking comparison to writing. Therefore, spoken word tends to be less effective than the written words.
(7) Possibilities of miss-understanding: Due to noise and poor expression, oral communication is likely to be misunderstood. The speaker may not be able to make himself quite clear or the listener may be inattentive.


When communication is done through the written words, it is termed as written communication. It is one of the best and reliable way of communication, this method is suitable when records are required to be kept in written form. Written communication involves the scission of messages through letters, notices, circulars, memos, reports etc. The choice of words should be done carefully in written communication as the words should be such as to coax a specific meaning.
A written communication must contain all the necessary facts. It should be complete and concise but this conciseness should not be at the cost of clarify and completeness.


(1) Permanent Record: Written communication provides a per anent record for future reference. If any dispute arises, the fatter can be solved by the contents or past written materials.

(2)  Accuracy: Written messages are prepared with great care and thought as the authenticity of written message can be challenged and verified. Thus it gives clear and correct information to the receiver.
(3) Access: Written communication is best suitable in the situations when there is need to send the information to the persons who are distantly placed. Written message have widest possible coverage.
(4) No need for personal contact: In this type of communication, it is not necessary for both parties to be present before each other. Written message is sent to the concerned person by the authorities.
(5) Suitable for lengthy messages: Written communication is very suitable for transmitting the lengthy messages.
(6) Responsibility and Accountability: In this type of communication, it is quite easy to fix the accountability and responsibility. Nobody can shift or avoid his responsibility.
(7) Saves time and money: When message is to be conveyed to different people at different places, written communication is the best one. In such cases, it is most economical and time saving.
(8) Prevent distortion of messages: Written communication reduces the risk of any alteration in the message and this prevents misunderstanding. It also ensures uniformity in instructions, procedures and other messages that require identical action by many persons.


(1) Time consuming: Written communication is more time consuming as time has to be spent in writing and sending the messages. It is very formal and lacks personal interest.
(2) Lack of secrecy: It is difficult to maintain secrecy about a written message as it can be read sometimes even by unauthorized persons.
(3) Expensive: Written communication is an expensive way of communication as expenditure is incurred on ink, paper, typing. Remuneration ‘for the person preparing the message and postage
charge etc.
(4) Lacks flexibility: Written communication lacks reification and adjustments cannot be made at once. As there is as no direct discussion between the parties, hence doubts of the receiver may not be clarified.

(5) Less effective: Written communication tends to be formal and there is lack of personal touch. Sender cannot be able to express his feelings fully in this type of communication. Therefore, the
receive is less receptive.
(6) Not suitable in Emergency: When there is some emergency this system becomes inappropriate in the sense that it will take much time to send written message.
(7) Delayed Feedback: In written communication, the sender of the message cannot receive the immediate response of the receiver. He has no opportunity to judge the reaction from the facial
expression of the receiver.
(8) Lead to red-tapism : Written communication may lead to red-tapes as it involves many formalities.
It is clear from the above discussion that both the methods have their own advantages as well as disadvantages. There is needed to make proper co-ordination between these two communication
forms. It is rightly said that, if a manager chooses only one method, then he will have to face serious failure.

     Short Answer Questions
Q.l. What do you understand by Verbal Communication?
See page 10 and 11.
Q.2. What do you understand by Non-Verbal Communication?
See page 11 and 12.
Q.3. How business communication can be classified on the basis of direction?
See page 12 and 13.
Q.4. Distinguish between Oral and Written Communication.
                                      DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORALAND WRITTEN C OMMUNICATION               



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