Unit 3 Motivation Mcom Study Notes
Unit 3 Motivation Mcom Study Notes:- In this post, we want to tell you that Mcom 1st year Motivation: Process of motivation; theories of motivation: need hierarchy theory: theory x and theory Y; Two factor theory; alderfer’s ERG theory, McCleland’s learned need theory, victor Vroom’s expectancy theory, stacy adams equity theory.
(Meaning and Definitions of Motivation)
Motivation is the human’s inner motivation, due to which the person is motivated to do the work himself. Any person can have the ability to do work, but he will complete the work with his full ability only when he is motivated to do the work, so it is very necessary to motivate any person to get the work done. . Prominent scholars have defined motivation as follows:
In the words of Michael J. Jusius, “Motivation is the process of motivating oneself or another person to do a desired action, that is, to press the right button to achieve the desired process.”
According to Dale S. Beach, “Motivation can be defined as the readiness to exert one’s power with a view to achieving a goal or reward.”
In the words of Dalton E. MacFarland, “The idea of motivation is primarily psychological. It is concerned with those executive powers, which individually motivate the employee or his subordinate to act or not to act in the prescribed direction. According to Stanley Wayans, “Any thought or desire that changes one’s feeling in such a way that one becomes determined to act is a motivation.” In the words of Carol Schortle, “Motivation is a definite motivation or stress to move in a certain direction or to achieve a specified goal.”
According to E. F. L. Beach, “Motivation is the general motivating process that enables the members of a team to work together effectively, to show loyalty to their team, to perform the assigned responsibility properly and to fulfill the objectives or duties of the organization.” Inspires to participate effectively.”
On the basis of analytical study of the above definitions, it can be said- “Motivation is a process by which a human being is motivated, so that he can put all his strength and capacity towards the attainment of definite goals. In fact, motivation is the person’s motivation.” Intuition is what drives him to act on his own.”
(Elements or Characteristics of Motivation)
Following are the main elements or characteristics of motivation:
1, Self-incentive – Motivation is the inspiration of the person, that is, it arises from within the person. In fact, one is motivated to act only to fulfill the necessities of his life.
2, Unending Process – Motivation is an infinite process, which never ends, that is, a person is always motivated to act.
3, Psychological Concept – Motivation is a psychological concept. It develops the mental power of the person and motivates him to do more work.
4, Power to Act – Motivation encourages a person to act. It provides the power to do work, by which a person is able to make maximum use of his abilities. Motivation affects the whole person, not any part of it because the individual is an indivisible unit. So he is completely motivated.
5, Increase in Efficiency – Motivation increases the person’s efficiency, due to which the person makes maximum use of his ability and potential and as a result his efficiency increases. Motivation improves the quality of production of a person and he produces maximum.
6, Increase in Morale – Morale is a collective feeling. Motivation motivates individuals to work cooperatively, so motivation helps in increasing morale.
Koontz and O’Donnell have given four elements of motivation—(1) Productivity, (2) Competition, (3) Comprehension, and (4) Flexibility.
(Aims of Motivation)
The main objectives of motivation are as follows-
(1) To motivate the employees to do more work.
(2) To meet the economic, social and psychological needs of the employees
(3) To develop human relations in the enterprise.
(4) To increase the morale of the employees.
(5) To increase the efficiency of the employees.
(6) To get cooperation from the employees.
(7) To establish a cordial relationship between labor and capital.
(8) To make good use of human resources.
(9) To achieve the goals of the undertaking.
(Factors affecting Motivation)
For the convenience of study, the factors affecting motivation can be divided into the following two parts-
1, Monetary Incentives – The employees in the enterprise are directly motivated by monetary incentives. Monetary motivation includes the following components:
(i) fair wages or salaries, (ii) bonus, (iii) overtime, (iv) monetary reward, and (v) interest on appropriation
Monetary incentives satisfy the basic needs of the employees.
2, Non-monetary Incentives – Monetary motivations alone are not enough to make employees do more work, but non-monetary motivations also motivate employees to work more. Non-monetary motivations include the following components:
(i) Security of work, (ii) Appreciation of work, (iii) Respect of employees, (iv) Equal treatment of employees, (v) Opportunities for promotion, (vi) Deletion of rights, (vii) Suggestions of employees Recognition to, (viii) Welfare schemes for employees: such as housing, medical, entertainment, education, insurance etc., (ix) Participation in management.
(Necessity of Motivation)
The main function of management is to get the work done by other people. An enterprise is established to fulfill the set goals. These goals can be accomplished only by encouraging the people engaged in the undertaking towards work. Any person can have mental and physical ability to do work, but it is not necessary that he should make full use of that ability. The best performance of any work is possible in that condition, when the person has the ability to work as well as the desire to work. For a person to perform a job well, it is necessary that that person should be motivated to do the work. It is often seen in practice that if a person does not get proper motivation, then surely he uses only 50% to 75% of his potential. On the contrary, if the person is given proper motivation, then he utilizes his capacity from 90% to 100% and is satisfied with his work, hence the employees are motivated to get the proper amount of work done in any undertaking. is required to be done.
(Methods of Motivation or Basis of Motivation)
In order to take full advantage of the potential of the employees and to get the best output from them, it is necessary to motivate them. There is no one fixed method of giving motivation, but motivation can be given in many ways. The best motivation method depends on the condition of the enterprise, psychological attitude of the employees and social conditions. If proper method of giving motivation is not used, then it has a negative impact on the employees and they can prove to be difficult for the enterprise, so the method of motivation should be appropriate.
Employees from any undertaking can be motivated in the following ways –
1, Positive and Negative Incentives – Positive motivation refers to such motivations, by which employees are encouraged to produce more by paying more wages, salary, bonus etc. Negative motivations refer to those motivations by which individuals are intimidated and motivated to do more work. This includes expulsion, demotion, punishment, torture, etc. In today’s era, positive motivations have more effect than negative motivations. Positive motivations allow employees to understand their existence in the enterprise and work more efficiently.
2, Individual and Collective Incentives – Individual motivations mean such motivations, which are given directly to a particular person. These are given only to those persons who bring more profit to the enterprise. These motivations can be given in monetary and non-monetary form.
Collective motivations are those motivations which motivate the whole group. These motivations are provided directly to the group. It motivates the whole group of people, not affecting the individual. These motivations can also be given in the form of monetary and non-monetary motivations.
3, Monetary and Non-monetary Incentives – Monetary motivations refer to such motivations, in which the person is motivated to work by giving money. The first need of any person is survival and security, for which money is needed. Everyone works to get money, so monetary motivation is the most important motivation. This motivates the person to act quickly. Monetary motivation can be given by way of fair wages or salaries, bonus, premium, interest on appropriation etc.
Non-monetary motivations refer to such motivations, in which the person is motivated by other means rather than by giving money. The person does not work only to get money, that is, the person also works for the attainment of needs like social respect, self-satisfaction, attachment etc. All this is possible only through non-monetary motivations. Non-monetary motivations include job security, appreciation, participation in management, promotion, counselling, delegation of authority, recognition of work, welfare schemes like housing, medical, education, training facilities, insurance etc.
Non-monetary motivations prove to be more effective than monetary motivations, so employees in the enterprise should be given monetary motivations as well as non-monetary motivations.
Some of the internal factors influencing perceptual selectivity are as follows:
2, Motivation and Interest
4, Organizational and Specialization
5, Economic and Social Background
7, Needs and Desires
Motivation Mcom Notes Hindi
Habit – Habits hardly change and therefore individuals perceive objects, situations and situations differently according to their habits. A Hindu because of his well-established habit, when he sees a temple, he salutes. There are many examples in life settings where the individual responds correctly to the wrong signals. Like a retired soldier laying himself on the ground when he hears the sound of a car tire exploding.
2, Motivation and Interest – Two examples of motivational factors are hunger and thirst. Motivational factors increase a person’s sensitivity to stimuli that he considers relevant to satisfy his needs in view of his past experience. A thirsty person has to find a water fountain to quench his thirst and a hungry person a hotel. A hungry and thirsty person has no imagination of anything other than these. He becomes completely satisfied only with enough food and water to quench his thirst. For this, he selects the restaurant or hotel according to his available resources.
3, Learning – Learning is a very important habit. If a person does not know any work but he is willing to learn that work, then that person fulfills his set goals very easily. The concept of learning leads to effective improvement in the performance of employees and executives. From time to time, the organization should make available arrangements for imparting training and knowledge of new technologies.
4, Organizational Role and Specialization – Modern organizations give importance to specialization. As a result, an individual’s characteristic that puts him in a particular organizational role leads him to select certain stimuli and disregard others. Thus in a long report a departmental head will first notice the text relating to his department.
5, Economic and Social Background – Employee’s perceptions are based on economic and social background. Socially and economically developed employees have a more positive attitude towards development rather than work developed employees.
6, Personality – It is believed that the individual as well as the stimulus have an effect on the perception process. Both the age, gender, caste, dress etc. of the persons have a direct impact on the perception process.
7, Needs and Desires – A person’s perception of stimuli is influenced by the time, difference, his needs and desires. The perception changes from time to time depending on the variation in his needs and desires.
8, Experience – The pattern of events or associations with what has been learned in the past influences current perceptions. The individual will choose perceptions in ways that are at odds with those found in the past.
9, Motivation – People will choose the concepts they need at the moment. They will favor selections that they feel will help them with their current needs and will be more likely to overlook what is irrelevant to their needs.
After certain assumptions have been chosen they can be arranged differently. The following are the factors that determine conceptual organization:
1, Figure-ground – Figure-ground organization is a type of perceptual grouping which is an important requirement for recognizing objects through sight. For example, a black word on a printed paper is seen as a data and a white sheet as a background.
2, Perceptual Grouping – Grouping occurs when perceptions are brought together in a pattern.
3, Closure – This is the tendency to try to make out of perceived parts. Sometimes this can happen by mistake, however, when the thinker fills in unverified information to complete his ideas or forms.
4, Proximity – concepts that are physically close to each other, easy to organize into a pattern or whole.
5, Similarity – The similarity between concepts encourages the tendency to group them together.
6, Perceptual Constancy – This means that if an object has always been perceived or acted in a certain way, one will infer that it is in fact always so.
7, Perceptual Context – People organize perceptions in relation to other contextual perceptions, and make a context out of those connections.
(i) Maslow’s Theory of ‘ Need Hierarchy’)
Abraham Maslow made his own model of human motivation in the year 1943 AD. He had put a question in front of all the people present in his research that whose motivation the people get to move towards a specified path. This ideology was characterized as the ideology of ‘necessary ordering’.
Assumptions of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy concept of human motivation is based on the following two assumptions:
(1) Human beings have many needs, whose nature is different, which range from biological needs at the lower level to psychological needs at the upper level.
(2) In this concept, the structure of fulfilling the need is made in a sequential manner. And in the same way they are fulfilled from bottom to top. First, the fulfillment of the lower level needs and then the fulfillment of the upper level needs motivates the man to work.
This model of need hierarchy makes human behavior more dynamic and realistic because it basically talks about the inner being of individuals as motivation. Maslow in his book ‘Motivation and Personality’ has analyzed the needs of individuals at five levels.
1, Physiological needs – The physical needs of man are the most important, in which food, water, housing and sexual needs are included. These are called ‘essential needs’ and only after their fulfillment, other level of needs act as catalysts.
2, Safety Needs – When the physical needs are fulfilled then moves towards protective measures. In these needs, there is concern for one’s old age and the bright future of the family. The fear of future uncertain and reduced efficiency in old age acts as a motivation in the form of the need to manage for the future in the present. After fulfilling the physical needs in the present, these needs continue to be fulfilled in the uncertain future, this feeling acts as a great catalyst.
3, Social Needs – After fulfilling the physical and protective needs, the person moves towards social needs, which include making friends, exchanging social work, attaining various social status and dignity. Is.
4, Esteem Needs – After the fulfillment of social needs of man, self-respect related needs are born in which position, prestige, respect etc. are included. Fulfillment of these needs satisfy one’s ego, knowledge of achievements and desire for a respected place in society and community.
5, Self-Actualization Needs – These high level needs are related to making a person aware of his abilities, abilities and achievements.
(ii )Two-Factors Theory of Motivation)
Herzberg’s ideology is based on two components, so it gained fame as a two-factor ideology of motivation. In this, the factors affecting the behavior of employees at work place are divided into two groups – health and motivation. While the ‘Health’ component is related to the work environment, the ‘Motivation’ component gives the motivation to do the work.
1, Health Factors – The health factors affecting the work environment of the employees include the policies, supervision, arrangements, working conditions, interpersonal relationships and salary etc. of the organization. Since these components maintain employee functionality, they are also called ‘maintenance components’.
2, Motivation Factors – The inclusion of elements like challenging work, achievement, advancement, recognition, development is in the form of motivation component. Through these, motivation is communicated to the employees. These motivational elements motivate the employees by filling them with a feeling of work, whereas health elements provide only satisfaction.
According to this ideology, employee dissatisfaction can be removed by paying attention to health factors.
(iii) Three-Factors or ERG Theory of Motivation)
In fact, this ideology is a modified form of the ideology of Maslow and Herzberg. This ideology was presented by Alderfer, hence it was recognized as ‘Alderfer’s three-factor ideology. Alderfer has divided needs into three categories on the basis of three components- Existence, Relatedness and Growth. In short, this is what is called ‘ERG ideology’ or ‘Tri component ideology’.
1, Existence – Such needs, which are essential for maintaining the existence of a person, are called existential needs, in which the needs of food, clothing and shelter and security are included.
2, Relatedness – It includes various needs arising in the context of social relations. In this, place is given to the interrelationship between different sections of the society. 3, Growth – The needs related to the development of the personality of the person have been included in this group, which includes the needs arising due to internal self-esteem and self-development.
Motivation Mcom Notes Hindi
This theory of categorization propounded by Alderfer is based on the various elements contained in the emotion of the individual. These elements affect more or less the level of emotion, which is as follows –
Frustration – When a person is unable to achieve the desired goal, after receiving the condition of repeated failure, despondency is included in the person. But the state of despair can also become a conductor of inspiration. In such a state, that is, in the state of despair, inspiration becomes successful and its result is also good.
2, Regression – When a person fails repeatedly in fulfilling a need, then he goes backwards, which is called ‘regression’. When such an opposite state occurs, the person becomes retrograde and he starts fulfilling the needs of the lower level. In such a situation, his concern with development, self-respect and sociality almost ends.
3, Progression – When the physical needs of the person are satisfied, then he gets satisfied and moves towards the needs of the upper level. For such a person, needs like self-respect and self-development act as motivators.
4, Aspiration – As a person progresses towards development, in the same way his longing for more development becomes stronger and for the fulfillment of this longing, new energy starts flowing in him.
This ideology of Alderfer is a modified form of the ideology of Maslow and Herzberg which is more practical.
(IV) Stacy Adam’s Equity Theory of Motivation
Any person will be motivated to work only when he gets fair and just reward for his work. On getting less than fair and just rewards, the person becomes dissatisfied and his interest towards the work turns into discouragement. If a person has received a prize more than is justified, then it must have been given to others by depriving him of the prize. Those whose right to reward is taken away from this, they will not only be dissatisfied, but the one who gets more than the requirement will expect more partiality and he will not be satisfied either.
1, Input – The education, knowledge, experience, skill, tact, effort etc. of the person working for motivation are considered as the input basis for getting the reward.
Outcomes – The outcome of motivation can be both monetary and non-monetary. Monetary outcomes include salary increase, bonus, provident fund, pension etc., while non-monetary outcomes include appreciation, promotion, recognition etc.
3, Perceived Equity – When the employee’s contribution to a work and the rewards received in return are equal, then it is called ‘perceived equity’, which is non-partisan.
4, Distributive Justice – There should be a sense of fairness in the distribution of rewards to the employees. Rewards have been distributed fairly, this is not only enough, but the distribution of prizes should also seem fair. An employee checks the fairness of his award by comparing it to the reward received by another employee.
5, Comparison – The contribution and reward received by one employee in the performance of the work is compared with the contribution and reward of the performance of the other employee.
(i) This comparison can be done with similar employee engaged in his own organization, which is called self-inside comparison.
(ii) This comparison can be made with the persons who have held other positions in their own organization, which is called other-inside comparison.
(iii) This comparison can be done with a similar person working outside his organization, which is called self-outside comparison.
(iv) This comparison is made with people holding different positions outside their organization, which is called other-outside comparison. This ideology of Stacy Adams is considered practical and appropriate.
(Vroom’s Motivation Theory of Expectancy)
Criticizing the satisfaction factor ideology of Maslow and Herzberg, Broom proposed an alternative motivational ideology, under which individuals are motivated to achieve certain goals because they expect certain actions, which help them to achieve their goals. That is, individuals are motivated even in anticipation. Broome’s model rests on the three basic concepts of value, expectation and power. Broom’s concept is equivalent to the algebraic formula, which can be expressed as
Motivation (power) = persistence x expectancy
Motivation (Force) = Valence x Expectancy
1, Valence – In Broom’s words, persistence refers to a person’s preference for a specific outcome, which includes monetary and non-monetary motivations, attitudes, and expected utility. A person’s persistence towards a goal is positive only when he gives priority to the result.
2, Expectancy – The second factor affecting motivation is anticipation, which includes the individual’s likelihood that a specific action will lead to an outcome. The integral part of Valence Shakti is ‘Karma’ (Instrumentality). Importance of the Theory
An important feature of Voom’s ideology is that it recognizes individual differences in work motivation and states that motivation is a complex process.
The achievement ideology was propounded by McClelland and his colleagues. It is clear from McClelland’s research work that it is necessary to understand human needs for motivation. He has divided human motivational needs into three parts.
1, Need for Achievement – This prepares the person to take personal responsibility for solving problems and to do work more efficiently and accept challenges.
2, Need for Affiliation – Every person tries to maintain good and friendly relations with other people. He wants respect and recognition from other people. He also participates in social organizations for this.
3, Need for Power – It is because of this need that he wants to influence other people. He is always ready to compete with others to maintain his dominance.
While giving motivation, mainly ‘X’ principle and ‘Y’ principle are kept in mind. The ‘X’ theory presents a pessimistic view and the ‘Y’ theory presents an optimistic view.
The ‘X’ theory, propounded by McGregor, believes that the person does not want to act on his own, so the person is motivated to work by intimidation or by showing fear of punishment.
(Assumptions of ‘X’ Theory)
The following are the assumptions of ‘X’ theory –
(1) The ‘X’ theory has been recognized as a traditional ideology.
(2) Can be motivated to work by giving the lure of earning more profit financially.
(3) Due to the frustration of the management system towards the worker, he considers the worker as a machine and wants to work continuously in that form.
(4) The person suppresses his ambitions because he is more careful about the safety of himself or the family. Being ambitious increases risk
(5) In this the person has no interest in the work.
(6) The person is never willing to work voluntarily and happily.
(7) It is only in the state of direction that a person is motivated to act.
(8) It is only when the person is afraid that he is inclined towards working.
(9) The person himself always avoids incurring any responsibility. Under compulsion, he takes the burden of responsibility on himself.
(Use of ‘X’ Theory with Reference to India)
Reference to India)
By studying the above assumptions, we can get knowledge of the nature of this theory and can say that ‘X’ theory is based on unrealistic assumptions. This principle gives importance to the main means of production to the worker as a mere part of a machine. In India, the mentality of the workers has not changed due to their continuous slaves for a long time, they need control.
Thus, the ‘X’ theory is traditional and presents a pessimistic view, under which pressure is used to take work from the individual and no motivation is given to the worker.
To remove the defects of X’ theory, ‘Y’ theory was formulated. This rendering has also been done by McGregor. This theory is based on an optimistic view. It focuses more on human relations. According to McGregor, “An effective organization is one in which instead of directing and controlling, there is integrity and cooperation and in which those affected by every decision are included.”
(Assumptions of ‘Y’ Theory)
The following are the assumptions of Y’ theory:
(1) According to this principle, the person is satisfied with the position and the standard of living is also correct according to his social nature.
(2) This theory is based on the assumption that along with monetary motivations, one should be given non-monetary motivations.
(3) In this, special emphasis is laid on resolving the problems of the employees. Being based on democratic concepts, it is natural to do so.
(4) No one is afraid of work. He wants to work voluntarily. For this it is necessary that the person should be given a fair opportunity to work.
(5) The person gets complete satisfaction through work, so he does not find it distasteful to do the work.
(6) No person can be executed by intimidation. Proper environment, means and opportunities are provided to get the work done.
(7) The element of ambition in the individual is important in this theory. He is always ready to accept the greater burden of responsibility with pleasure.
(8) In this, emphasis is laid on human relations, due to which sweetness prevails in the relationship and the employees get satisfaction.
(Use of ‘Y’ Theory with Reference to India)
भारत में नियोक्ता व कर्मचारी के बीच आज भी मालिक और नौकर का भाव बना हुआ है, इसीलिए श्रमिक यह सोचता है कि उसे अपने मालिक की आज्ञा, फिर चाहे वह कैसी भी हो, का पालन करना है और नियोक्ता यह सोचता है कि श्रमिक से अधिक से अधिक कार्य लेना और कम-से-कम पारिश्रमिक तथा न्यूनतम सुविधाएँ देना उसका अधिकार है। इसी कारण भारत में ‘Y’ सिद्धान्त के आधार पर अधिकतर प्रबन्ध में कार्य नहीं किया जाता है। वर्तमान समय में वैधानिक प्रावधानों और श्रम संघों में जागरूकता आने के पश्चात् भी इस सिद्धान्त के उपयोग में कोई विशेष वृद्धि नहीं हुई है। अब श्रमिक अपने अधिकारों की माँग धीरे-धीरे करने लगा है। इसी प्रकार कुछ नियोक्ता भी लाभ विभाजन एवं प्रबन्ध में सहभागिता आदि के विचार को व्यवहार में ला रहे हैं। ये विचार ‘Y’ सिद्धान्त के अन्तर्गत ही आते हैं। ‘Y’ सिद्धान्त की मान्यताओं को भारत में अभी पूर्ण रूप से स्वीकार नहीं किया गया है, लेकिन इसके सम्बन्ध में श्रम संघों तथा सरकार द्वारा प्रयास किए जा रहे हैं।
भारत में ‘Y’ सिद्धान्त की मान्यताओं का अभी पूर्ण रूप से विकास तो नहीं हुआ है, परन्तु यह आशा अवश्य की जा सकती है कि भविष्य में धीरे-धीरे ही यहाँ ‘Y’ सिद्धान्त की मान्यताओं को महत्त्व मिलेगा।
‘Y’ सिद्धान्त आज के युग में अधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण तथा कारगर है। इस सिद्धान्त के अन्तर्गत श्रमिकों का स्तर ऊँचा रहता है तथा उन्हें उपक्रम में मान्यता मिलती है, इसीलिए आजकल इस सिद्धान्त का उपयोग किया जाता है।
Mcom Motivation Study Notes