Unit 2 Organizational Behaviour Mcom Study Notes

Unit 2 Organizational Behaviour Mcom Study Notes


Unit 2 Organizational Behaviour Mcom Study Notes:- In this post, we want to tell you that Mcom 1st year Organizational Behaviour: Organizational behavior; Concept and significance; Emergence and ethical perspective; Attitudes; Perception; Learning; Personality; Transactional Analysis.  [organizational Behaviour Mcom Notes ]


Meaning of Organizational Behaviour

In the modern perspective, where the technical system of communication and functioning exists in its latest form, it becomes necessary to understand the complex socio-technical system in order to understand the organization system properly.

The study of organizational behavior involves becoming familiar with the ways in which individuals work more effectively.

John W. Newstorm and Keith Davis, in their book ‘Organizational Behaviour’, define organizational behavior as saying – “In an organization Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge of how individuals act as individuals and as groups.

According to Robbins, “Organizational Behavior is the field of study that examines the effects of individuals, groups, and structures on behavior within an organization so that such information can be used to improve the effectiveness of the organization.”

(Concept of Organizational Behaviour)

The following are the concepts of organizational behavior –

1, Nature of Organization – The concepts of organizational nature related to organizational behavior are as follows-

(i) Interested Onset Concept – Every organization is formed for the fulfillment of human interests. These interests are personal as well as traditional.

(ii) System-oriented concept – Every organization has its own social structure and system, which can be known as formal and informal systems. The organizational environment of the organization gets its strength through this social structure.

(iii) Moralistic Concepts – Every organization has its own moral policies, which is a combination of social, psychological and religious morality in the interest of the organization. Through these moral concepts, the workers get mental strength and they are motivated towards higher ideals.

2, Individual Differences – Many similarities are found among individuals; Like everyone feels hungry, thirsty, wants a house to live, wants to join a group or society etc. Even so, each person differs from other people in many ways. Every person’s face is different, thinking is different, thumb impression is different, the structure of DNA and chromosomes is different etc. It is because of individual differences that organizational management trains, motivates and trains each individual or group in different ways.

3, Attachment – Some of the employees of the organization are more sensitive towards the organization and they also have wider engagement towards it. On the contrary, some workers are indifferent in nature. Through engagement, experiences are exchanged and through the experiences of others, one’s field of knowledge is expanded.

4, Perception – Every person’s feeling towards the goals creates a difference on the level of consciousness. This difference of consciousness is the reason for the difference between man and machine. Each person reacts according to his own consciousness.

5, Motivation – The conduct of all our behavior follows social needs and is influenced in some way or the other by physical and family background. That is why man is busy in some work or the other. Family and social environment motivate man to fulfill his essential needs. Motivation is that power, which makes man aware and inspires to act.

6, Wholeness – In the organization, a person works with his completeness. It is not that a person should be taken partly in the service of the organization, that is, only his skill and tact should be used and no relation should be made with other physical needs and activities. Similarly, a person’s domestic life and work life cannot be separated completely, that is, a person should feel hungry and thirsty only at home, the need to retire from physical activities should be only at home, it is not possible. Organizational management tries to replace the individual as the best employee.

7, Value – Five components have been represented for production- land, labour, capital, organization and courage. All these have a value in the organisation. Since it is the individual who collects all these components of production and takes up the work, the value of the individual cannot be equated with the value of other means of production. He is not only a part of production but also the supreme being of this earth. Therefore, the organization has to be evaluated and treated in the same way which affects the organizational behaviour.

(Importance of the Concept of Organizational Behaviour)

The concept of behavior is very important for every organization, due to which the following are the main reasons:

The concept of organizational behavior is of this type, in which disciplines like behavioral science, social science, psychology etc. contribute. Various types of doubts related to these subjects keep arising on the mental board of the employees working in the organization and in the absence of answers, deviations start to arise in the mind. The nature of some such questions may be as follows

(i) Why does management give more work and respect to only a few people?

(ii) Why and how do the people working in the organization behave like this?

(iii) Why do some people cooperate and some do not cooperate?

(iv) Why are some people more successful than others even with the same ability?

(v) Why do individuals behave differently in home, society and organization?

The correct answer to the above questions is found by the study of organizational behavior because in this social science, behavioral science and psychology etc.

Due to continuous analysis and research in organizational behavior, its field is also increasing. Continuing research is becoming clear about how and why individuals in an organization think, feel and react. As a response to this, practical and best ideas are being developed, which prove to be meaningful in controlling organizational behavior and also guide the management.

(Key Elements of Organization Behaviour)

Following are the basic elements of an organizational behavior:

Departmentalization – The meaning of departmentalization is to group the various functions of an enterprise according to their nature in such a way that coordination can be established among all the departments and the best use of the organization’s resources is possible. These departments can be in the form of purchase, sale, production, finance etc. Sometimes departmentalization is also done on the basis of geographical or production.

2, Delegation and Decentralization – Along with the departmentalization of functions, it is necessary that if the responsibility of departmental functions is entrusted to suitable persons, then discharge their responsibilities in an efficient manner under the instructions of the higher management. . Along with responsibilities, rights should also be transferred to them. Even while transferring the rights and responsibilities, it should be seen that the control of every manager should not exceed the limit, otherwise he will not be able to keep effective control over his subordinates.

3, Establishment of Formal Relations – The function of the organization is to coordinate human and material resources to achieve the objectives. In this work, according to the rights, duties and responsibilities between different departments or managers, formal relations have to be established, who is subordinate to whom or is accountable to whom. There can be many forms of embodiment of these relations and these models are known as organization structure like line organization, line and staff organization, functional organization etc.

Contingency Elements Determining Organizational Structure

While designing the organizational structure of an enterprise, the management has to keep in mind many things which are as follows:

1, Goals and Strategies-

It has become clear from the studies done by scholars like Alfred Kendler, Josh and Gluck etc. that in modern management the organization structure is done according to the set goals and strategies. Thus goals and strategies are considered to be the defining components of the organization structure.

2, External Environment – ​​In modern times the external environment has become dominant for the enterprises. Therefore, managers have to adjust their internal organization according to the environment so that the enterprise can bear the effects of the changing external environment and the operation of the enterprise continues in a proper manner. For this, sufficient flexibility and adaptability is kept in the organizational structure.

3, Production System – The production system of an enterprise also affects the organization structure. Elements of organization like management expansion, number of departments, ratio of managerial and non-managerial persons etc. are affected by production system and technology. For example, in modern technology there is less need for non-managerial persons and more managerial persons and the scope of management is also small.

4, Employees – The needs, aspirations, abilities and attitudes of the employees (manager and non-manager) of an enterprise also affect the organization structure. For example, enterprises that employ mostly educated and trained personnel may want more freedom and challenge in their work. In such a situation, a large pyramid shaped structure is not considered suitable.

Management is not exclusive to business but common to all kinds of organised activities, Discuss,

Ans- Management is the process of guiding the development, maintenance and allocation of resources to achieve organizational goals. Managers are the people in the organization responsible for developing and leading this management process. Management is dynamic in nature and evolves to meet the needs and constraints in the internal and external environment of the organisation. In a global market where the rate of change is increasing rapidly, flexibility and adaptability are critical to the management process. This process is based in four major functional areas of the organization. These areas are planning, planning, leading and controlling. Although these activities are discussed separately in the chapter, they actually form a cohesive unified circle of thoughts and actions.

According to Harold Koontz, “Management is the art of working through and with people in formally organized groups. It is the art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals cooperate to achieve group goals. can.”

According to F.W. Taylor, “Management is the art of knowing what to do, when to do it and seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way.” According to J.N. Schulz, “Management is the force that a priori Leads, guides and directs an organization in the achievement of a set object.

According to S.George, “Management consists of getting things done through others. A manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing the efforts of others.

(Importance of Management in the Present Day Context)

It Helps in Achieving Group Goals – It organizes the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources. Integrates resources in an effective manner to achieve goals. It directs the efforts of the group towards the achievement of predetermined goals. Clearly defining the purpose of the organization will not lead to wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts the disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a way that the enterprises work towards achieving the goals.

2, Optimum Utilization of Resources – Management uses all physical and human resources productively. This brings effectiveness in management. Management provides optimum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternative use in the industry from various uses. It utilizes experts, professional and these services make proper use of their skills, knowledge and capability and avoid wastage. If workers and machines are producing its maximum then there is no employment under any resource.

3, Reduces Cost – It achieves maximum results by means of minimum inputs by proper planning and by using minimum inputs and obtaining maximum outputs. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in a manner that results in the best combination. This helps in bringing down the cost.

4, Establishes Sound Organization – No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated work). Establishing sound organizational structure is an objective of management which is in line with the objective of the organization and to accomplish this, it establishes effective authority and responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who is superior and who is subordinate. Management fills various positions with right persons who have right skill training and qualification. All jobs must be approved by all.

5, Establishes Equilibrium – It enables the organization to survive in the changing environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. Change is the external environment, the initial coordination of the organization has to change. Hence it adapts the organization to the changing demands of the market or the changing needs of the society. It is responsible for the growth and survival of the organisation.

6, Essentials for Prosperity of Society – Efficient management leads to better economic output which helps in increasing the welfare of the people. Good management makes a difficult task easy by avoiding wastage of difficult resources. It improves the standard of living. It increases profit which is beneficial for business and employment opportunities will get maximum output at minimum cost which generate income in hands. Organization comes up with new products and researches beneficial to society.

7 Helps to Maintain the Balance Between the Multiple Goals – This means that in the management of every organization there are two goals and the other is the organizational goal. Both these goals are very important because individual goals satisfy the employees and employers of an organization and the goals of the organization satisfy both (employers and employees or even the organization itself).

8, Maintain Coordination – It means that effective management is always done in coordination with its individuals and organizational goals. It sharpens the motivation of the employees so that he can put his full efforts in any work and also achieve the organizational or individual goals. This is the reason, coordination is also of prime importance. Through which management helps in increasing the continuity of business transactions.

9, To Face Cut-throat Competition and Survival of Existence – This means that the management of each organization helps it to face tough competition in the modern business environment. Good management always thinks to move their organization forward so that they can capture a bigger market later. Management innovation identifies technology, social processes, and other organizational structures that have become part of or predetermined organizational functions. It helps in adapting to or adapting to complex environmental changes and increases their level of competence.

10, Social Development – It means that the best management always prepares the business for social welfare as it helps in directing human energy towards the needs of the society or education like education, clean environment, health care, etc. helps. The main responsibility of any manager in an organization is to enable him to achieve his goals as well as social welfare and development.

11, Environmental Analysis – It means that it helps the management to evaluate or analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are related to their organization. This can be referred to as SWOT analysis. Through this analysis, the company’s management minimizes risks and maximizes environmental benefits.

SWOT analysis always helps the management to determine the competitors, marketing strategies, product strategies, placement strategies and other business activities as well.

12, Social Innovation – This is the twelfth importance and means that the management of each organization provides a framework for social and economic development to our stakeholders. It offers various facilities like Educare, Healthcare, Clean Environment, Entrepreneurship and so on. It also plays an important role in social development.

(Meaning and Definitions of Personality)

The word ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘per sonare’ which means ‘to speak through’. The term was used in ancient Greece and Rome for the masks worn by actors. This Latin meaning is helpful in analyzing personality.

Personality generally refers to the role that a person performs in front of others. But on the other hand the educational definitions of ‘personality’ are more related to ‘person’ and not his/her role. In fact, the true meaning of personality is related to both the qualities and the role of the person. Personality is formed by the whole behavior of a person. McClelland has defined personality as the most appropriate description of human behavior. All aspects of behavior are included under this type of understanding. According to Valentin, “Personality is the sum of innate and acquired tendencies.” According to Fred Ludhans, “Personality refers to the idea of ​​the whole person. It includes perception, learning, motivation and other psychological elements.” According to him, the external nature and behavior of the individuals, the inner consciousness of the self, the patterns of the defining qualities and the person’s environment constitute the personality of the interaction.

According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.”

According to Robbins, “Personality is the sum total of behaviors in which a person acts and reacts with others. ,

According to Floyd Rach, human personality includes the following:

(i) External Appearance and Behavior or Social Stimulus Value –

(ii) the inner consciousness of the Self as a permanent unifying force,

(iii) Specific pattern of internal and external measurable features. According to Fred Luthans, “Personality is a very broad and complex psychological concept. It is concerned with external appearance and behavior, ‘self’, measurable traits and situational interactions.”

According to Klukohn and Murray, “To some extent a person has the same personality as everyone else, but to some extent he meets other people and to some extent does not meet anyone.”

Major Determinants of Personality

How is personality determined? In fact, it is one of the most complex questions in the study of human behavior because many factors contribute to the formation of personality, along with cognition and psychological processes. Following are the major determinants of personality:

1, Heredity – Psychologists believe that the effect of lineage is less visible in practice. According to Scott, “In relation to its role, the determinants of the factors affecting the lineage are developed. It is found in imitation. All knowledge of heredity reveals individual differences.” According to Scott – “A person receives the necessary infrastructure for survival and development through his inheritance.” According to J. Kelly, “Indeed, the initial function of personality can be expressed in the form of chains. Heredity is modulated by genes, genes determine hormone balance and anatomy shapes personality.” A recent study in which 350 pairs were selected has revealed that heredity plays an important role in the formation of personality. Particularly in the context of organizational behaviour, it has been found that the qualities like leadership, traditionalism and obedience to authority are basically determined by inheritance.

2, Physique – The nervous system and activities of the body have a direct effect on the development of personality. It includes the size of the body, the nervous system, the vital system, etc., through which a person acquires basic intellectual abilities and the person manifests himself in the later life. It is no exaggeration that physical deficiency has an effect on the personality of a person. Human intelligence, mental ability, mental weakness, is directly helpful in the development of personality. The personality of a weak person is not fully developed.

3, Environmental Effects – Environmental factors have the greatest effect on the development of personality. Man lives in a dynamic socio-cultural environment and develops according to the environmental characteristics. Environment influences in two ways – social environment and cultural environment. Family and culture play an important role in determining personality. Social and entertainment related activities play a special role in the development of personality.

4, Childhood Experiences – Childhood experiences also become a part of human personality permanently. The behavior of parents and other members of the household also affects the developing mind of the child.

Following are the major determinants of personality according to Luthans

1, Biological Contributions – Biological components have a special role in personality development, which can be divided as follows –

(i) Role of heredity, (ii) Genes related system and intelligence splendor, (iii) Managerial thinking, (iv) Split brain thinking, (v) Biofeed bank, (vi) Physical characteristics and rate of maturity

2, Cultural Contributions – The contribution of cultural factors in the determination of personality is relatively higher than the biological factors. Learning process plays an important role in personality development. Culture is a fundamental concept in the process and content of learning because what a person learns is the subject matter. Culture is a major determinant of factors such as independence, aggression, competition and cooperation. For example, Western culture emphasizes on making a person independent and competitive, while other cultures emphasize on making a person religious and tolerant. This is the reason that the personality of the people of the West is always found to be different from others. In the analysis of organizational behavior, it is necessary to take into account the legitimate cultural influence.

3, Contributions from the Family – Another major determinant of personality is family. In particular, the role of parents plays an active role in the identification process, which is important in the early development of an individual. Later it turns into a socialization process. 4, Situation is another important determinant of personality. It is generally believed that a person’s personality is stable and does not change under different circumstances. In contrast, different situations in the real world demand different aspects of personality. This is because personality styles cannot be seen in isolation.

(Transactional Analysis)

The use of behavioral analysis as an approach to organization development has increased rapidly over the years. It is a technique through which a person can understand himself better and know how he affects the other person. It tells what principles and ego states are at work behind a person’s behavior and how they can work with each other in an effective way. Luthans is of the view that “Although behavior analysis is not a mainline technique of organization development, it is gaining popularity among managers”. Many large companies conduct behavioral analysis programs for their managerial and other important persons. They are being widely used especially in the fields of counseling, group dynamics and interpersonal communication. When widely used in the organization development approach, it seeks to develop adult status in individuals and other complementary behaviours. This technique is also used for interpersonal development at various stages of team building.

Bowen and Nath have suggested the following guiding principles for the successful use of behavioral analysis as a technique of organization development

(i) If behavioral analysis is used in organization development, it can be highly effective, if it is used early in the diagnosis phase.

(ii) The planning, action and stabilization process should be designed to encourage the continued use of the behavioral analysis framework.

(iii) Behavioral analysis in organization development should be used within the broader process of organization development.

(iv) Behavioral analysis is best used in interpersonal relationships and process counseling in organization development.

(v) The use of behavioral analysis for change does not mean that there is no need for interpersonal competence in the counselor.

organizational Behavior Mcom Notes

According to Thomas Harris, “Behavioral analysis is an intellectual tool by which to understand the basis of behavior and feelings.”

According to Paul Hersey and Blanchard, “Behavioral analysis is a method of analyzing and understanding human behavior, inspired by the concept of Freudian psychology.

Sigmund Freud was the first psychologist to state that there are three sources within the human personality that motivate and control his behavior. Freud named these as Id, Ego and Super Ego.

Eric Byrne called behavioral analysis a method of analyzing human behavior. He has given a detailed discussion of behavioral analysis in his book ‘Games People Play’ and has told that its main objective is to provide an understanding of how individuals are related to each other so that they can develop systematic communication and human relations.

(Dimensions of Transactional Analysis)

Behavioral analysis is mainly divided into four parts –

1, Structural Analysis (Analysis of individual personality),

2, Transactional Analysis Analysis of what people do and say to one another,

3, Games Analysis – Analysis of latent behavior that ends in some form of payment. (Analysis of ulterior transactions leading to a pay off),

Analysis of specific life dramas that persona compulsively play out,

(Meaning and Definitions of Attitude)

Attitude is the mental picture or image of a person on the basis of which he expresses a favorable or unfavorable attitude or idea towards that person, group, object, situation or any event. Attitude has a directional effect on the behavior of a person. Attitude directs the power of a person in a particular direction, due to which he starts behaving in a certain direction, leaving other directions. Prominent scholars have defined the attitude as follows-

According to Allport, “Attitudes are those mental and nervous states of readiness which are organized by experience and have a dynamic effect on the individual’s response to all objects and situations related to him.”

According to Katz and Scotland, “Attitudes are those tendencies to evaluate things or their symbols in a certain way.” According to Robbins, “Attitudes are evaluation statements or judgments about objects, people or events.” As is clear from the definitions of attitude- Attitude can be positive as well as negative. If the attitude of the person is positive then his reaction will also be favorable but if the attitude is negative then the reaction will not be favorable but will be unfavorable i.e. there is always a relationship between the attitude of the person and his behavior. Characteristics of Attitude

VSP Rao and SP Narayana have mentioned the following characteristics of attitudes in their book Organizational Theory and Practice

1, Valence – It shows the quantitative importance of favorability or unfavorability towards events. When we measure attitudes, we are basically concerned with connectivity. If a person has a very favorable or unfavorable attitude towards something, then his attitude is of high connectivity, that is, it is an indicator of the intensity of the attitude.

2, Multiplexity – Attitude is made up of many elements.

3, Relation with Needs – There can be a difference in attitudes with respect to the expected needs. For example, a person may have an attitude with respect to films that they are only for entertainment. Whereas that person can have an attitude about his action that the needs of action, security, achievement, recognition and balance should be fulfilled.

4, Centrality – It shows the importance of things in relation to the attitude of the person. It is not easy to bring change in the attitude which is highly centralized.

(Functions of Attitude)

Attitude performs the following four important functions-

1, Adjustment Function – Attitude helps a person to move towards desired goals and prevents them from going towards unwanted goals. This work is based on the principle that people try to maximize rewards and minimize punishments.

2, Ego-defensive Function – It is related to protecting the self-image of the person. Ego-protective attitudes arise to adjust to internal and external threats or pessimistic events.

3, Value-oriented Function – This function of attitudes not only provides clarity to the self-image but also makes the self-image closer to the inner desires.

4, Knowledge Function – This work of attitudes is based on the need to understand the world. Attitudes favorable to the circumstances are retained and unfavorable attitudes discarded.

Define the organizational development, Discuss its Characteristics and objectives,

Organizational development (OD) is a planned organization level effort to increase the effectiveness and viability of an organization. Organizational development can involve using behavioral science know-how to intervene in the organization’s ‘processes’ as well as organizational reflection, systems integration, planning and self-analysis.

Warren Bennis describes organizational development as a response to change, a complex educational strategy that aims to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of the organization, to enable them to develop new technologies, marketing and marketing strategies. Get better adapted with challenges and an astonishing rate of auto-change. Different people have defined organizational development differently.

According to Koonzet (According to Koonzet) “OD is a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise. It is designed to solve problems that adversely affect operational efficiency at all levels. We do.

According to Burke – “Behavioral science is defined as a planned process of change in the culture of an organization through the use of technology, research and theory”.

Organizational development is a critical and science-based process that helps organizations build their ability to transform and achieve greater effectiveness by developing, improving and strengthening strategies, structures and processes.

(Characteristics of organisational Development)

The characteristics of organization development are as follows:

1, Focused on the Entire Organization – The organization development program creates an environment that encourages employees to learn and grow. It is not the traditional training that instead an employee is focused on the whole organization.

2, Research on Action – An essential feature of the organization development process is that it focuses on research into various work situations to understand the areas that make up the issues. The method tries to find viable measures to improve the organizational performance.

3, System Approach – Organization development is based on a systems approach to encourage inter-group and mutual coordination and cooperation.

4, Solving the Problem – Problem solving is one of the important features of the organization development method. Action research provides the necessary data on the issues and helps in solving them effectively. This increases independence.

5, Group Process – In the organization development process, emphasis is placed on group process rather than individual activities. It develops functional conflicts and ways to improve interpersonal relationships through practical discussion between groups.

6, Feedback – Feedback is an essential feature of the organization development process as it provides important information that helps in decision making.

7, Know through Experience – An essential feature of the organization process is the adoption of new behavior patterns by learning through experience. In this system, people develop concepts of behavior and make changes based on the situations they are exposed to and their associated experiences. As the organization is flexible in terms of development contingencies and solutions, it has the feasibility to choose the right solution.

8, Change Agent – Services of outside experts, usually obtained to implement the OD process. “Do it yourself” programs are discouraged in OD. When the primary change agent is a consultant outside the organization, he or she can work independently without ties to the organization’s organizational hierarchy and politics. The personnel director of the organization There is an internal agent who coordinates the program with the management and external agent.

Since an external agent also works with management, the personnel investor, management and external advisor have a three-way relationship as they develop the OD program. Very rarely, an internal change agent is used by the organization, usually a specialist in personnel personnel.

(Objectives of Organizational Development)

संगठनात्मक विकास के उद्देश्य इस प्रकार हैं –

1, व्यवहार विज्ञान सिद्धान्तों को लागू करने के लिए (To apply Behavioural Science Theories) – संगठन के विकास का पहला उद्देश्य संगठन में कुछ व्यवहार विज्ञान सिद्धान्तों को लागू करना है। इन सिद्धान्तों को लागू करने से संगठन विकास प्रथाओं के विकास की उम्मीद करता है।

2, संगठनात्मक प्रदर्शन में सुधार करने के लिए (To Improve Organizational Performance) – संगठन के विकास का अन्य उद्देश्य संगठन के समग्र प्रदर्शन में सुधार करना है। इस प्रकार संगठन को मानव इतिहास के महत्त्वपूर्ण संस्थानों में से एक के रूप में स्थापित किया जा सकता है।

3, व्यक्तिगत प्रयासों का उचित उपयोग सुनिश्चित करने के लिए (To Ensure Proper Use of Individual Efforts) – व्यक्तिगत प्रदर्शन में सुधार किया जाना चाहिए। यह व्यक्तिगत प्रयासों का ठीक से उपयोग करके सम्भव है। संगठन विकास मानव प्रयासों और प्रतिबद्धता का उचित उपयोग सुनिश्चित करता है।

4, जागरूकता पैदा करने के लिए (To Create Awareness) – संगठन विकास उद्यम में काम करने वाले लोगों के बीच जागरूकता पैदा करता है। वे अन्य संगठनों की तुलना में परिवर्तन की आवश्यकता महसूस करता है।

5, लोगों को समस्याओं को हल करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना (To Encourage People to Solve Problems) –  हर संगठन में कई समस्याएँ और चुनौतियाँ होती है। संगठन विकास लोगों को इन समस्याओं को हल करने और वर्तमान और भविष्य में चुनौतियों को सामना करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करता है।

6, पारस्परिक संबंधों को स्थापित करने और बनाए रखने के लिए (To Establish and Maintain Interpersonal Relations) – संगठन विकास गतिविधियों को स्थापित करने की दृष्टि से लागू किया जा सकता है और साथ ही संगठन के लोगों के बीच पारस्परिक संबंधों को बनाए रखता है। यह निरंतर विकास सुनिश्चित कर सकता है।


7, काम का माहौल बनाने और बनाए रखने के लिए (To Create and Maintain a Work Environment) – संगठन में काम करने का माहौल अनुकूल होना चाहिए। संगठन विकास व्यवसायी एक अनुकूल कार्य वातावरण बनाते है और भविष्य में सुचारू कामकाज के लिए इसे बनाए रखते हैं।

8, ज्ञान और कौशल बढ़ाने के लिए (To Increase Knowledge and Skill) – नवीनतम तरीकों का कौशल किसी भी संगठन के विकास को कारगार बना सकता है। संगठन का विकास प्रशिक्षण के माध्यम से ज्ञान और कौशल के स्तर को बढ़ाने का है।

9, परिवर्तन के प्रतिरोध को कम करने के लिए (To Minimize Resistance of Change) – ज्यादातर मामलों में, हर परिवर्तन का विरोध किया जाता है, यह लक्ष्य उपलब्धि को बोधित करता है। संगठन विकास एक सकारात्मक मनोदशा में परिवर्तन के प्रतिरोध को कम करने में मदद करता है ताकि प्रबंधन अधिक सतर्क हो जाए।

10, नौकरी से संतुष्टि पैदा करना (To Create a Job Satisfaction) – नौकरी से संतुष्टि लोगों की खुशी के साथ कड़ी मेहनत करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करती है। संगठन विकास उन कर्मचारियों के लिए नौकरी से संतुष्टि पैदा करता है जो संगठन विकास गतिविधियों में शामिल है।

all M.com Notes Link : click here

Mcom Organizational Behaviour

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