- 1 International Marketing Nature, Scope and Importance Bcom Notes
- 1.1 अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन-प्रकृति, क्षेत्र एवं महत्त्व (International Marketing: Nature, Scope and Importance)
- 1.2 अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की विशेषताएँ
- 1.3 अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की प्रकृति
- 1.4 अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की आवश्यकता अथवा महत्व
- 1.5 English Version
- 1.6 International Marketing
- 1.7 Definitions:
- 1.8 Nature of International Marketing
- 1.9 Need/Importance of International Marketing
- 1.10 Difference Between Domestic and International Marketing
- 1.11 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
- 1.12 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING TARGET COUNTRIES
- 1.13 (I) GENERAL ANALYSIS
- 1.14 (II) SPECIFIC ANALYSIS
- 1.15 PROPER SELECTION OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS
- 1.16 Methods of Entry in Foreign Markets
- 1.17 (II) INDIRECT EXPORTING
- 1.18 VARIOUS FORMS OF DIRECT EXPORTING
International Marketing Nature, Scope and Importance Bcom Notes
International Marketing Nature, Scope and Importance Bcom Notes:- In this post, we will give you notes of Principal of Marketing of BCom 3rd year English and Hindi, Marketing Mix Bcom Notes Hindi and English.
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अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन-प्रकृति, क्षेत्र एवं महत्त्व (International Marketing: Nature, Scope and Importance)
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय का अर्थ विभिन्न देशों से है व विपणन से आशय उन मानवीय क्रियाओं से है जो विनिमय प्रक्रियाओं के द्वारा आवश्यकताओं एवं इच्छाओं को संतुष्टि की ओर निर्देशित करती हैं। ऐसा विपणन एक देश की सीमाओं के बाहर किया जाता है। यद्यपि अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन को निर्यात विपणन की संज्ञा भी दी गई लेकिन यह निर्यात विपणन से अधिक व्यापक होता है क्योंकि अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन में निर्यात विपणन के अतिरिक्त अन्य कई विपणन क्रियाओं को भी सम्मिलित किया जाता है जैसे भौतिक वस्तुओं का विक्रय, ग्राहकों को संतुष्ट करना, सेवा उपलब्धि, विदेशी सहायकों की नियुक्ति आदि।
टर्पेस्ट्रावर्न के अनुसार, “अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन राष्ट्रीय सीमाओं के बाहर किया जाने वाला विपणन है।”
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की विशेषताएँ
- राष्ट्रीय सीमाओं से बाहर विपणन – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन में वस्तुओं या सेवाओं का निर्यात विदेशों में किया जाता है। यह भी हो सकता है कि एक देश का व्यापारी माल का उत्पादन दूसरे देश में करे और वहाँ से उसका निर्यात करे।
- बहुराष्ट्रीय प्रक्रिया – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन में वस्तुएँ या सेवाएँ एक खास देश को नहीं बल्कि अनेक देशों को निर्यात की जाती है, अतः यह एक बहुराष्ट्रीय प्रक्रिया है।
- विपणन का एक अंग – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन, विपणन का एक अंग है। अर्थात् विपणन में राष्ट्रीय व अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन दोनों ही शामिल हैं।
- वस्तुओं एवं सेवाओं का विपणन – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन के अंतर्गत न केवल उत्पादों का बल्कि सेवाओं का भी विपणन किया जाता है।
- नियमन – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन का विधिवत् नियमन एवं नियंत्रण विपणनकर्ता के देश के कानूनों के साथ-साथ सम्बन्धित बाजार के राष्ट्रीय कानूनों के आधार पर भी किया जाता है।
- राष्ट्रीय विपणन की सभी गतिविधियाँ – राष्ट्रीय या स्थानीय व्यापार में होने वाली सभी गतिविधियों जैसे कि मूल्य निर्धारण, उत्पाद विकास व संवर्द्धन माल वितरण का प्रबन्ध अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन में भी की जानी होती हैं।
- समूचे व्यापार तन्त्र का एक अंग – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन समूचे व्यापार तन्त्र का एक अंग होता है तथा इसमें भी माल या सेवाओं का क्रय-विक्रय होता है, हाँ यह होता देश से बाहर है।
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की प्रकृति
- बहुराष्ट्रीय विपणन प्रबंध – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन बहुराष्ट्रीय विपणन प्रबंध प्रयासों का योग है।
- नियंत्रणीय एवं अनियंत्रणीय घटक – स्वदेशी विपणन में आन्तरिक घटको का प्रबंध करते हुए फर्म के वातावरण में विद्यमान अनियन्त्रणीय घटकों का प्रत्युत्तर देने का प्रयास किया जाता है।
- विशिष्ट चातुर्य – स्वदेशी विपणन के विपरीत, अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन हेतु प्रबंधक में विशिष्ट चातुर्य वाछित है।
- संरक्षणवादी प्रकृति – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की प्रकृति काफी सीमा तक संरक्षणवादी होती है। प्रायः प्रत्येक देश अपने निर्यात को ढ़ाना चाहता है तथा आयातों को कम करना चाहता है।
- राजनीतिक प्रवृत्ति – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन में विभिन्न राष्ट्रों के मध्य राजनीतिक सम्बन्धों की भी महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका होती है।
- प्रभुतापूर्ण प्रकृति – नए एवं आधुनिक उत्पादों के उत्पादन के कारण अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन के अधिकांश भाग पर विकसित देशों ने पना प्रभुत्व स्थापित कर लिया है।
- कड़ी प्रतियोगिता – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन कड़ी प्रतियोगी प्रकृति का होता है। अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय बाजार में विपनणनकर्ताओं को त्रि-रीय प्रतियोगिता का सामना करना पड़ता है।
- जोखिम की अधिकता – अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन कई प्रकार के जोखिमों से घिरा होता है क्योंकि इसमें एक व्यापारिक लेन-देन को पूरा करने में काफी समय लगता है।
- साख अभिमुखी – प्राय: अधिकांश आयातक देश उन देशों से माल खरीदना पसंद करते हैं, जहाँ भुगतान अवधि लम्बी हो तथा ब्याज की दर कम से कम हो
- विभिन्न कानून तथा मौद्रिक प्रणालियाँ – प्रत्येक देश के कानून अलग-अलग होते हैं तथा प्रत्येक देश में अलग-अलग मौद्रिक प्रणालियाँ लागू हेती है |
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विपणन की आवश्यकता अथवा महत्व
(क) राष्ट्र के दृष्टिकोण से लाभ
- अतिरिक्त माल का निर्यात तथा आवश्यक माल का आयात
- श्रेष्ण जीवन स्तर प्राप्त करना
- विदेशी बाजारों में बढ़ोत्तरी
- आर्थिक प्रगति में सहायता
- प्रतिस्पर्धा के कारण उत्पादों में सुधार
- रोजगार के अधिक अवसर
- आयातों का भुगतान
- प्रौद्योगिकीय विकास
- आपातकाल में सहायक
- प्राकृतिक साधनों का पूर्ण उपयोग
(ख) निर्यात करने वाली फर्म के दृष्टिकोण से लाभ
- बड़े पैमाने पर उत्पादन की सम्भावना
- उत्पाद के अप्रचलित हो जाने से बचाव
- प्रोत्साहनों व सरकारी सहायता का लाभ उठाने के लिए
- लाभों में वृद्धि
- कच्चे माल की प्राप्ति
- उपभोक्ता सन्तुष्टि में वृद्धि
(ग) सामाजिक दृष्टिकोण से लाभ
- अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सहयोग में बढ़ावा
- सांस्कृतिक सम्बन्धों में सुधार
- अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय शान्ति व तालमेल में सहायता
Meaning of International Marketing International Marketing can be referred to as the complete study of transaction of goods and services between two or more countries. In international marketing, one country crosses its national boundries in order to understand intricacies of another country regarding various goods and services purchase and sale patterns. The scope of international marketing is much broader than the export marketing because export marketing is only concerned with export of goods and services from one country to another whereas international marketing also includes consumer satisfaction, service availability, appointment of foreign assistants, etc.
According to Hess and Phillip Ketiora, “To make available company’s goods and services to more than one country’s customers for use, is known as international marketing.” According to Van Terpestra, “The process of marketing beyond the countries border is called international marketing”.
Nature of International Marketing
(1) Multinational Process: International marketing is a multinational process because in this, business is carried out with two or more countries.
(2) Political Nature: Political relations between nations also play a vital role in international marketing.
(3) Protective Nature: Protectionism is a common feature in international marketing. Usually every country tries to increase its exports and reduce its imports.
(4) Dominance: International market is mainly controlled by developed countries because of technological advancement and their modern products.
(5) Intense Competition: High degree of competition at different levels has to be faced by a marketer in international marketing.
There is a tri-level competition which a marketer faces while doing international marketing involving producers of the importing countries, exporters of the other countries and exporters of own country.
(6) More Risk: International marketing is adhered to a high degree of risk.
(7) Credit-Oriented: International marketing is of credit oriented nature.
(8) Different Laws and Monetary System: Laws and monetary systems in every country are different.
Need/Importance of International Marketing
(1) Due to tough competition in domestic market, a firm may adopt international marketing to find out the possibility of potential sale of its product.
(2) International marketing provides earning facility with better quality products which improves the standard of living of the citizens.
(3) New business units are established for international marketing which generates new employment opportunities.
(4) If a firm has surplus or unutilized capacity, it can adopt international marketing so that firm’s capacity may be fully utilized.
(5) International marketing causes enlargement of world’s total output. International marketing thus leads to an increase in the world’s prosperity and welfare of each trading nation.
(6) International marketing promotes technological development.
(7) International marketing increase international co operation.
(8) International marketing has removed the gap of demo graphical, political as well as cultural boundries. Needs and wants of consumers are studied completely by global manufacturers and then efforts are made to satisfy these desires by providing quality products and services.
(9) International marketing helps to earn foreign exchange which can be used towards the payments of imports.
(10) International marketing helps to maintain cultural relations with other countries.
(11) Through international marketing, obsolete product can be provided to the people in any area of any country in the world where the product is still in demand.
Difference Between Domestic and International Marketing
The study of distinction between domestic and international marketing has become important and these two differenciated an some of the following basis:
Problems in International Marketing
(1) An international marketer often encounters problems arising out of the differentes in language.
(2) Political and legal differences discourage the spread of international marketing.
(3) Every country has its own culture and people think, feel and generally behave different from country to country.
(4) Differences in currency unit create many problems in international marketing.
(5) Marketing infrastructure varies from nation to nation and creates many problems in international marketing.
(6) Tariffs and other trade barriers discourage the growth of international marketing..
International Marketing Nature Scope
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
Marketing environment refers to those factors and forces which influence a company. International marketing companies operate in number of countries and every country has its own marketing environment. Therefore, international marketing companies have to understand and manage these differences through country specific strategies for the success.
Marketing environment scanning is a continuing process of gathering information regarding company’s internal and external environment, analysing it, forecasting its trends and impact on the operations and performance of the company. On the basis of environment scanning. company may design appropriate strategies to cope itself effectively with changes taking place in the marketing scenario. With the help of effective environment scanning marketing company may take full advantages of prevailing opportunities and minimise negative impact of prospective threats. Therefore, in the fast changing marketing scenario environment scanning assumes vital significance.
Broadly marketing environment may be divided into two categories internal and external. Internal marketing environ ment is manageable by the management of the company, whereas, every company has to adjust itself with external environment. Marketing environment may be explained through the following diagram:
CRITERIA FOR SELECTING TARGET COUNTRIES
Mainly two types of analysis are necessary to select the target market. In technical language, these are known as ‘General Analysis’ and ‘Specific Analysis’.
International Marketing Nature Scope
(I) GENERAL ANALYSIS
General information is collected in general analysis which is very necessary for every market. This information is related to importing country. In this, information is collected about income and interests of foreign customers, classification of population, etc and its analysis is made. The following information is gathered under general market analysis:
(1) Population: When a marketer performs international marketing, then he should first of all, estimate the population of prospective foreign market. He should also enquire about the number of rural and urban people. He should also study the customs, cultures, habits, religions, traditions, social environment, etc.
(2) Education and Standard of Living: International market is also affected by education and standard of living of the people. If the marketer is carrying his business in such a country where people are highly educated, then he should also know that their standard of living will also be high and their needs will also be according to that. As against it, people having low standard of living will demand cheap quality products.
(3) Means of Transport and Communication: Transport cost is much affected by means of transport and communication. Therefore, study of means of transport and communication is very necessary to select a foreign market. The marketer should know in advance whether the main modes of transport and communication like telephone, e-mail, fax, vehicles, etc. are available or not. If these means of transport and communication are less expensive. then business will be encouraged.
(4) Port Facilities: An exporter should first of all, enquire about the number of ports in the country. What is the availability of self-operated equipments for loading and unloading the goods? If the port comes under free trade area or not? Is there any arrangement for repairing the ship? All these factors should be known in advance.
(5) Level of Competition: An international marketer should know about the level of competition. He has to enquire about the extent to which his products may compete with domestic units and other countries’ industries. He must also know about rebates or discounts given by the government of that country.
(6) Political Situation: While selecting a foreign market, a marketer should analyse the political situation of that country. Is there any political stability? What are the government policies towards the foreign companies? If the country has business agreement with India or not? The marketer should obtain knowledge about these.
(7) Business Traditions and Customs: How are the traditions and behaviour of export market? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the traditions of India and the traditions of that country? If dissimilarities are more, then what will be its effect on business relation? Which methods of selling are popular there? What are the methods of delivering the information to the customers and what will be the cost of giving information? A marketer should collect this information.
(8) Level of Income: A marketer should know about the income level of the people of the country under consideration. He should know about per capita income of the people of the country with which he is doing business. He should know that on which items they spend their income and how do they save some part of their income.
International Marketing Nature Scope
(II) SPECIFIC ANALYSIS
General market analysis helps a marketer to know whether the market is favourable or unfavourable while specific analysis is done to know whether he can earn profit by exporting in that country or not. The following factors are included in this:
(1) Consumer Survey: Under consumer survey, it is observed if the consumers of the importing country will accept the product or not. It should also be known whether they need branded product or product without any famous brand. In this survey, the customer’s opinion is obtained about the product.
(2) Cost and Price Analysis: Under this, an exporter studies the cost of delivering and distributing the goods in foreign market and the maximum selling price of the product. Here, maximum selling price means the price at which a consumer can purchase the product.
(3) Promotion Cost: Various tools of promotion mix like advertising, personal selling, publicity and sales promotion are used. So, an exporter should also make analysis of the promotion cost.
(4) Test Marketing: Test marketing means to present the product in some selected markets for sale, so that, it may be ascertained whether the product will survive in the market or not. A marketer should know that if test marketing is done, then what will be the cost of test marketing.
(5) Other Factors: While analysing, an exporter may have to face many other factors which affect the market. Therefore, an exporter should make an analysis to know how these factors affect his product.
Thus, by making general and specific analysis, an exporter can select the foreign market which will not only provide good marketing possibilities, but will also provide adequate returns on investment.
PROPER SELECTION OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS
After the survey of foreign markets, manufacturer can select a country where:
(i) The restrictions are minimum,
(ii) Competition can be properly faced
(iii) Political condition are normal.
(iv) Costs are less
(v) Possibility of profits is more.
But side by side, the problems arising in various markets should also be studied. An exporter has to face these problems while exporting. Therefore, a marketer has to choose some specific countries or markets. A deep analysis of markets can help an exporter to know that which markets should be selected and which should be eliminated.
International Marketing Nature Scope
Methods of Entry in Foreign Markets
The producer can enter the foreign market by adopting the following two methods:
(I) DIRECT EXPORTING
Direct exporting is that method in which whole activity is done by the exporter itself instead of seeking the help of an agent i.e. he himself undertakes all the activities. When a producer himself does all the work solely, then the chances of risk are increased but the profits are also increased and the product can be exported according to the customer’s needs by receiving the information directly. This increases customer satisfaction.
Advantages of Direct Exporting: Importer and exporter both have many advantages from direct exporting which are as follows:
(1) Short Distribution System: In direct export, the distribution channel is short because there is no middleman. As a result, goods can be transferred to ultimate consumers in less time and at a suitable price.
(2) Estimation of Demand: Demand can be fully estimated with the help of direct export and goods can be exported accordingly.
(3) Knowledge of Customers: Under direct export, there is a direct relation between the exporters and customers. As a result, it becomes easy to understand their needs, desires and preferences.
(4) Full Control: In direct export, a producer has full control over all the production activities and prices. So, he can easily determine terms of credit.
(5) Creation of Goodwill: With the help of direct export, a marketer can maintain his own and his products’ goodwill.
(6) Increase in Sales and Profits: As there is a full control of exporter on the whole market, the sales and profits increase and thus, he gets the maximum benefit from the sale of his goods.
Disadvantages of Direct Exporting: In direct exporting, importer and exporter have to face some difficulties which have been explained here-under:
(1) Risky: Chances of risk are more as all the activities are undertaken by the exporter himself. Besides this, he also has to face risk related to transport and credit.
(2) More Need of Capital: Many expenses have to be made for direct exporting. These may be cost of selling, expenses of financing, development of export organisation, changes in production, engaging own staff, etc. All this requires a huge capital which is difficult to be arranged for an exporter.
(3) Management Ability: For an export business, an exporter should possess managerial ability. Managerial ability means having the knowledge of export management. To achieve success in export management, a manager should know about the foreign market, government rules and policies, customer’s interests, etc.
(4) Monopoly Prices: In direct exporting, the price of the product is determined by the exporter and the importer has to buy the product at this price only. T this exporting method has the nature of monopoly.
(5) Increase in Distribution Costs: It is necessary to establish distribution centres in foreign markets in order to maintain the stock, so that, there is not lack of stock but it is very costly which increases the distribution costs.
International Marketing Nature Scope
(II) INDIRECT EXPORTING
In indirect exporting, goods are exported with the help of middlemen. In this system, a firm sells its product to some other firm or person in the country which further sells them in foreign countries. The small companies which have no experience regarding export marketing enjoy the services of middlemen. In the opinion of Kotler, usually all the companies start their business with indirect exporting.
Advantages of Indirect Exporting: The indirect exporting has the following advantages:
(1) Economical: Indirect exporting is more economical than direct exporting because in this, exporter does not require to do market research mid advertisement. In addition, there is no increase in the fixed expenses of manufacturer.
(2) No Need of Export Branch: Under indirect export, whole task is performed with the help of middlemen. Thus, there is no need of any export branch and also no distribution channel is needed.
(3) Reduction in Workload: When a producer sells his products to the middlemen, then all the further activities are executed by the middlemen. Middlemen themselves undertake all the paper and legal work related to export.
(4) Advantages of Middlemen’s Goodwill: The middlemen have good image and receive orders from different countries in large quantity. Thus, the exporter can increase the sale of his products by taking the benefit of “middlemen’s goodwill.
(5) Suitable for Small and New Firms: This method is the most suitable for small and new firm entering into export business because these firms have the lack of technical ability and knowledge to enter the foreign market but the middlemen have full knowledge of various markets and marketing related situations.
(6) Less Need of Capital: Indirect exporting needs less capital as compared to direct exporting.
Disadvantages of Indirect Exporting: Indirect exporting has the following disadvantages:
(1) Lack of Full Knowledge of Consumers: As the whole work is done by the middlemen, the manufacturer does not have a relation with the importer. Thus, he does not have full knowledge about consumers.
(2) Instability in Business: Indirect exporting is also known as instable business because in this case, middlemen work with only those exporters who pay them more commission.
(3) Availability of Middlemen: Middlemen are needed for indirect exporting but generally, efficient middlemen are not available which causes many distribution related problems.
(4) Dependence on Middlemen: Middlemen purchase the goods when they receive orders from outside. In this situation, marketers engaged in indirect exporting have to depend on middlemen.
(5) Not Receiving the Benefits of Discounts: Such a marketer who is engaged in indirect exporting, can not achieve the status of an exporter. As a result, he cannot get the discounts declared by the government. From the study of above given two methods, it is clear that more sale is made through direct exporting in comparison to indirect exporting. Therefore, in big markets a firm can do indirect exporting while it can adopt direct exporting in small markets.
International Marketing Nature Scope
VARIOUS FORMS OF DIRECT EXPORTING
Its basic forms are as follows:
(1) Establishment of Branches Abroad: These branches are opened by the exporters in those countries where the demand for their products is more. In such types of organisation, exporter establishes his godowns in foreign countries for appropriate storage of his goods. In addition, he also establishes service centres to provide proper services to customers. It requires appointment of educated workers. A firm has to spend a lot of money in establishing a branch. Such foreign branches can effectively face the existing competition in those countries.
(2) Foreign Brokers: Broker is that person who brings the buyer closer to the sellers. These brokers are the specialists in their work and have full knowledge about the market. Their main work is to sell the goods to the foreign markets recognised by auction. They receive commission at a fixed rate on selling price in exchange of their services.
(3) Franchising Holders: This is a contract made between exporter and foreign firms. In this, foreign firms get the right to sell the exported goods in their markets. They have this right for a limited period and it may be discontinued if the specified terms are not followed. Though bearer has the “right to use the design, brand name, quantity, packing, etc. of the export company, yet he cannot make changes if he desires. The export company gets a fixed rate of percentage on the sales for providing such rights.
(4) Appointment of Exclusive Agent. This is the most popular method. Under this, exporting firm appoints a representative in the foreign market which can be in the form of a person, firm or a company. This representative receives orders from the importers of that country and passes them on to his exporter who directly supplies these orders. Representative firm gets the commission from exporting firm for the services rendered by it.
(5) Joint Venture: When the foreign market of a firm becomes larger and the volume of sale also increases, then that firm starts marketing in partnership in order to avail the advantages of marketing opportunities. In this, foreign exchanger and domestic exchanger develop a joint venture in which they are partners in ownership and control. In international marketing, joint venture aims at achieving success in marketing of goods in foreign markets.
(6) Establishment of Plant: If an exporter has to face many problems in exporting goods in foreign countries such as the labour on the goods to be exported are costly as compared to importing country and heavy amount is charged on goods to be exported, then exporter takes decision to establish a plant in foreign country. This decision has the element of more risk because political and economical changes in importing country may lead to plant closure. In addition, if the possibilities of sale are more, then it will be profitable to establish the plant.
(7) Mergers and Acquisition: In foreign markets, mergers and acquisition are used for a long time in the form of entry and expansion policy. By this, it becomes easy to enter the distribution system of foreign markets. At present times, Indian companies have also started to enter the foreign markets by adopting this policy. Merger and acquisition are two different terms. In merger, a firm purchases the assets and liabilities of other firm and combines it with itself. On the contrary, in acquisition, a company takes the management of the other company after purchasing it. This policy may help in reducing the competition.
The another objective of merger and acquisition is to use new techniques and patent monopoly.
(8) Distributors: In this, exporter appoints the distributors as sales representatives. They have godowns and showrooms in their country. Their work is to sell the goods at price determined by the exporter. Distributor does not receive commission on the goods sold in sales areas rather he works as a businessman. Distributor has the right to direct about advertisement, sales promotion, customer services, etc. This helps in controlling the export marketing effectively.
(9) Assembly: This is the last step of production in which all the imported parts of a product are assembled to make a final product. At present, many products are imported from China as different parts and then they are assembled in India. In the same way, most of the American manufacturers manufacture different parts of ship in developing countries, assemble them and bring them to their countries. In brief, there exist many forms of direct export organisation and an exporter can choose any of these according to his need.
International Marketing Nature Scope