Bcom 1st Year Non Verbal Communication Notes

Bcom 1st Year Non Verbal Communication Notes

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Bcom 1st Year Non Verbal Communication Notes
Bcom 1st Year Non Verbal Communication Notes

Non-Verbal Communication

Q.21. what do you understand by non-verbal communication? What are the different modes of non-verbal communication?
what is Non-verbal communication? Explain its merits and demerits.
what do you meant by Non-Verbal communication? Discuss its various types.


Communication in which exchange of message is done without using words is known as non-verbal communication. In other words, non-verbal communication is communication without the use of
written or spoken words. This is a mode of communication under which one person conveys his ideas or thoughts to the other person with the help of body movements, signs, postures etc.
B4Non-verbal messages express true accurately than the spoken or written language. Any feeling or thought. Which cannot be expressed by thousands of words can easily be expressed by expressions or bodily contact in .a moment. Thus, it is a effective and natural way of communication. By looking at one’s body language and expressions we get the idea about what the person is thinking and want to say. In non-verbal communication, smiling, patting one’s back, shaking hands etc. are used to express happiness while wrinkles on forehead, furrowed, eyebrows etc. are used to express unhappiness. It also makes verbal communication complete and more effective. The movement of eyes and eyebrows, facial expression, hand position, body movements and the tone, all convey meaning which adds to or modifies the spoken words.

According to Raymond and John,
“All modes of communication included neither in the non-verbal communication which are expressed written nor in spoken words. “

Thus, it becomes clear that when convey of message is done with the help of body movements, postures, sign etc. instead of written or spoken words then it is termed as non-verbal communication.


Non-Verbal communication can be classified in the following four types :
1. Body Language,
2. Sign Language,
3. Para Language,
4. Proxemics.
(1) Body Language or kine sics: Human body and its various parts play an important role in communication. The study of message conveyed by body movements is known as body language or
kinesics. It is a form of non-verbal communication in which messages are transmitted through the movements of different parts of body. Our facial expressions and eyes, gestures, postures and physical appearance reflect true inner conditions and send messages to others.
According to J. Fast, “protruding eyes for disbelief, rubbing the nose when feeling tense, crossing the hands for feeling secure, moving the shoulders up and down for showing different, putting
the hand on forehead for distress etc. are examples of body language.”
Signaling a four or six in a cricket match, signal used by a traffic policeman to stop the traffic are another good example of body language. According to Bird Whistle only 30-35% of the message is conveyed by language whereas rest 65-70% is conveyed by body language.
(2) Sign Language: When different signs, symbols and sounds are used to exchange messages, then it is termed as sign language. Sing language is very old and has first been improved in the
modern times. Different pictures, graphs, Colors, lights, sounds convey different meanings. Sign language can be of two types:
1.Visual Signs,
2. Audio (Sound) Signals.
Visual Sign language: It is a very old, easy and economic approach of communication. Posters, drawings, symbols, pictures, colors etc. are used to convey messages in the visual sign language. Some examples of visual sign language are as follows:

(i) Traffic signals : Red light to stop, yellow light to look and green light to go.
(ii) Symbol of two crossed bones below a skill indication of
(iii) Crossed cigarette means no smoking.
(iv) Red light used on VIP vehicles and ambulances.
(v) Picture for telephone booth.
(vi) Road signals for left, right and U turn.
Visual signals like pictures and posters convey the message effectively and make communication, interesting and motivating.
(2) Audio (sound) Signals: When different sound signals are used to convey different messages, it is termed as Audio sign language. In old times drumbeats were used to send a message from
one village to another village. Now, it is the latest and modern means of communication. These days audio communication is used in the business offices and factories to activate its daily activities effectively. Superiors in the offices use push bottom bells to call their peons, hooters and sirens are used to indicate the change of shift and lunch hours in the factory are the examples of Audio signals. With
the help of audio signals message is communicated in a large space easily. At the time of emergency audio signal plays a important real in the communication. Fire alarm, accident alarm, air raid alarm,
machine breakdown alarm etc. Convey the message very quickly and helps to take action immediately.
(3) Para language: The word ‘Para’ means like and, therefore Para language we meant: ‘like language’. In Para language; it was studied, how a person say something. Meanings are conveyed not
only by what is said, but also by how it is said. Para language involves the study of voice quality, volume, tone. Pitch, rhythm and the manner of speaking beyond the said words. In concentrates on ‘how? Of
speaker’s voice rather than ‘what’ of the words.
The tone and voice of the person giving the message tells about his behavior, education, temperament and general background. Deep-throaty voice indicates the maturity of man whereas flat voice indicates person’s lack of interest in life. Clear voice indicates the confidence of the speaker whereas broken voice is the indication of his lack of preparation and hesitation.
Proper stress is also an important part of Para language. Through proper stress the effect of the message can be increased. Stress on different words changes the meaning of message every time. For example, in the sentence-you may go, if stress is laid on the word go then it shows anger. Sound is also an important aspect of communication as it conveys different feelings like love, affection,
anger etc.
Although Para language is like a language but it is not a language itself. It can serves only as a supplement to main language. It alone cannot serve the purpose of communication. Different persons
may interpret Para language in different way and may come to understand different meaning thereof.
(4) Proxemics: Proxemics is a term derived from an English word ‘Proximity’ which means nearness in terms of distance, gap and time. It is the study of our surrounding environment, place, distance, time and the nearby subject matter which help in the process of communication. Proxemics is also known as the language of space and time. Proxemics in clouds the following languages:
(i) Space language, (ii) Time language, (iii) Surroundings.
(i) Space Language: In space language, nature of communication is affected by the distance between two peoples. When two persons talk to each other, we observe different style of sitting or standing position. By observation one can understand whether they are closely related or not. So, the distance between us and other people tell us something important about our relations with others,
our status, our level of confidence and the nature of our communication with them.
Edward T. Hall, describes four types of informal spaces to know human relationship.
(a) Intimate: Physical distance contact to 1— feet. Only family members, closed friends and selected people enter this area.
(b) Personal: Distance between 1— feet to 4 feet. Friends, relatives, colleagues etc. enter in this area.
(c) Social: Distance between 4 to 12 feet. This area covers formal and official relationship.
(d) Public: Distance 12 feet to as far as we can see and hear. This distance is suitable for public meetings.
But it should also be noted that we determine these areas individually and can change them to by changing our physical location. For example Barber and Dentist work within the intimate
space, yet the relationship between them and their client may be impersonal.

(ii) Time Language: In time language, people complete the communication process keeping the time limits in mind. Business enterprises use several time saving devices in offices etc. Different
modes of communication are used keeping the time limit in mind. All communication should be made at right time to make them effective.
(iii) Surroundings: The physical environment of communication such as color, layout and designing also has their own nonverbal language. We can judge the status and personality of a person with the help of his surroundings. Our choice of color and design give signals to others.
Different colors are associated with different attitudes, be, heavier pattern and cultural backgrounds. For example white is generally associated with peace. Pink, red, yellow, green represents pleasant and cheerfulness. Black represents sadness and negative feelings. Right choice of color is very important for effective communication. The space arrangement of an office, furniture and its design etc. are also important in communication. Layout, design and decoration of the office also project the image of the organization.


Main advantages of on-verbal communication are as follows:
(1) Make effective to oral communication: Non-verbal communication is an effective supporting device to oral communication. It makes the oral communication perfect And effective. In the absence of expressions and body movement’s oral communication comes uninteresting and ineffective.
(2) Helpful in expressing emotions and feelings: Non-verbal message express true feelings and emotions more accurately than the spoken or written words. Different feelings such as anger,
happiness, respect, sympathy, love etc. can be expressed easily with the help of non-verbal communication. Body language speaks more than language.
(3) Regulate the flow of conversation: In the process of communication, sender can regulate the flow of communication with the help of gestures and facial expressions. It works as both the accelerator as well as brake of a vehicle.
(4) Easy and economic way of communication: Non-verbal communication is an easy and economic way of communication. It requires no expenditure for communication. Both the sender and the receiver are in front of each other, it takes no time in communication.
(5) Reliable information: Generally, information obtained through none-verbal communication are more reliable as one can control the words easily but cannot control the feelings of the heart. A look at someone’s face reveals his inner feelings effectively. It helps in developing better understanding.


Main disadvantages of non-verbal communication are as follows:
(1) Create confusion: Same signs and signals have different meaning in different cultures. This creates confusion sometimes.

(2) Lack of Proof: Like oral communication, there is no written proof of the message in the non-verbal communication, In case of dispute; it may create a lot of problem.

(3) Less reliable: A person must take precautions while communicating the people who can hide their facial expressions. Their body language can mislead the other person. In such cases it becomes less reliable.
(4) Unsuitable for large gathering: Non-verbal communication becomes ineffective in case of large gathering. It can work effectively only in face to face communication.
(5) Dies-interest of the receiver: When the receiver of the message shows dis-interest on the use of facial expressions or eye contact, then it all becomes useless. In the same way, if listener does
not pay attention to the communicator, then gestures made no effect on him.
(6) Suitable only for brief messages: Non-verbal communication is suitable only if the message is brief. In case of lengthy messages, it becomes useless.
Q.22. what is meant by body language? Discuss the types and significance of body language.
What do you mean by kinesics? Discuss various aspects of kinesics.
State the meaning, types and significance of body language or kinesics.

“Smiling is more effective in comparison to the sound of lips”. Explain it in reference to the body language.


When message is transmitted through the movement of different parts of the body, then it is is termed as body language. It is an important mode of non-verbal communication. Our facial expressions and eyes, gestures, postures and physical appearance reflect true inner conditions and send messages to others. According to J. East, “Protruding eyes for disbelief, rubbing the nose when feeling
tense, crossing the hands for feeling secure, moving the shoulders up and down for showing different, putting hand on forehead for distress etc. are examples of body language.”
Signaling a four or six in a cricket match, signal used by traffic policemen to stop the traffic are another good example of body language. According to Bird Whistle only 30-35% of the message is
conveyed by language whereas rest 65-70% is conveyed by body language.


Body language can be classified in following ways :           `
(1) Postures : The various Ways of sitting, standing and lying down are termed as postures. Different styles used in sitting and standing convey different meanings. Our body shape and posture affect the way we think about over selves, how we relate to others and Others relates to us. Posture indicate confidence, fear, aggressiveness, rejection, status, anxiety etc. effectively. Leaning forward or
backward, standing and sitting erect, bending sideways all these makes immediate impression on other person mind. For Example : A listener who is taking interest in the speech of speaker, sit leaning
forward, on the other hand a listener who is not interested in the Speech sit leaning backward or see watch again and again.

(2) Gestures: Movement of hands, head, body legs etc. to express an idea, feeling, emotions etc. is termed as gestures. Movement Of different body parts conveys messages effectively without
using the words. A traffic constable is able to direct traffic on crowded road through gestures of hands and arms, without verbal communication. Pointed finger gives warning to a person more strongly than words; a cricket umpire uses his finger along with words to declare a batsman out. Shaking of legs or keeping hands tight on lap, biting nails shows the person is afraid or he is tense of the situation. A speaker usually in a serious mood, while presenting the text, uses many gestures of hands and head to emphasize certain words. Thus, gestures play an important role as medium of non-verbal communication to convey messages effectively.
(3) Facial expression: Face has been called the mirror of the heart because whatever a person feels inside is reflected 611 his face. The lines of forehead, the eyebrows, the muscles of cheeks, lips all
speak louder than words. Each expression of the face is an effective medium of communication. Emotions and feelings like happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disguised and anger can be conveyed effectively through facial expressions. For Example: Furrowed eyebrows, wrinkles on forehead, lips pressed together reflect anger whereas relaxed eyes, raised corners of lips shows the feeling of happiness.
(4) Eye contact: Eyes are a very important part of body language. Eye contact is of great importance in face to face communication. How long and how a person stares at something shows his
feeling, honesty, trustworthiness and capability to do work. For Example: A person maintains eye contact with the speaker while discussing pleasant topics whereas avoid eye contact while discussing
unpleasant or embarrassing topics. A long fixed gaze shows interest whereas evasive eyes indicate lack of interest or nervousness.
(5) Body contact: Body contact is also one of the earliest “‘methods of communication. A pat on the back, shaking hands or holding hands can express more than a lengthy speech. Touching is
a powerful communicative tool which serves to express a tremendous range of feelings such as fear, love, anxiety, warmth and coldness etc. For example-a gentle touch of a friendly hand on
shoulders communicate encouragement whereas push on the back reveals anger or anxiety of a person.
(6) Appearance: Appearance includes dressing, hair style, cleanliness, make-up etc. of a person. All these things convey information regarding person’s age, economic status, qualification, occupation etc. Surroundings of a person also speaks a lot about him.
(7) Silence: In many circumstances, silence also is an effective medium of communication. In a number of situations if no response or reply is received within a specific period, the silence on the part of
the respondent signifies communication. For example, if someone is criticizing a man and the other person remains silent then it means that he agrees with the criticism.


Main advantages of body language can be summarized as follows :
(1) Substitute of verbal communication : Non-verbal communication serves as a substitute of verbal communication. It proves helpful at that time when verbal communication becomes impossible. A traffic, policeman can control or direct the traffic on crowded road through gestures of hands and arms, without verbal communication. When verbal communication breaks down due to noise. interference, then non-verbal communication may serve as a substitute.
(2) Supporting device to verbal communication: Use of body language increases the effectiveness of verbal communication. In the absence Of eye contact, gestures and facial expressions, face to
face communication proves ineffective.
(3) Helps to reveal the truth: Body language also proves helpful to reveal the truth because one can speak lie with tongue but his face and eyes express the real things. According to Nancy Austin, “when people do not know whether to believe what they are hearing or what they are seeing, they go with the body language : it tells the truth. You can play fast and loose with words, but it is much
more difficult to do with gestures.”
(4) Helpful in continuing the verbal communication: If once communication starts, then body language helps to make its continuity. It provides a ready feedback to the communicator. For Example: During communication if another person nodded his head for acceptance, it will make good effect on the communicator.
(5) Reveals the status: Body language also provides knowledge about the social status of the sender and the receiver. For example persons belong to higher status will be intense free situation and sit leaning backward, on the other hand, people belong to lower status will be intense and stand erect and straight.
(6) Make business environment favorable and effective: Effective use of body language also proves helpful to make the business environment favorable and effective. Using non-verbal communication, the manager can clear his position and express his thoughts more effectively to his worker and customers.
(7) Easy and economic method of communication: It is the natural, easy and economic mode of communication. It doesn’t require any expenses and saves a lot of money for the organization.

(8) Reveals emotions and feelings: Body language reflects the inner emotions and feelings of a person effectively. It give a clear picture of his thoughts and reveals what he is thinking. According to
Lusaka, “the importance of body language is revealed by the fact that much of what we say to others without using words is sent through the physical movement of the body.’


Main limitations of body language can be summarized as follows :
(1) Create confusion : People belongs to different cultures and customs have different meaning for the same signs. This situation creates confusion sometimes and can be miss-interpreted by the other
person. Therefore precautions should be taken while using the body language.
(2) Not reliable and authentic: Facial expressions and gestures etc. are not reliable in every condition Written and verbal communication is taken seriously in comparison to body language. Therefore care should be taken while communicating those persons who can hide their facial expressions.
(3) Effective in large group: Body language can prove effective only in face to face communication. 11.1 case of large gathering it becomes ineffective.
(4) Dies-interest of the other person: Body language can be effective only if the other party pay attention to it. When the other person shows disinterest on the use of facial expressions or eye con
tact, then it becomes useless.
Q.23. Briefly explain the meaning of body language and sign language Give examples to illustrate it.
See Page 76 and 81 for the answer of this question.             
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Write a short note on body language

Ans. See page 76.
Q.2. Explain the concept at Para Language.
. See page 77.
Q.3. “Para Language is closest to non-verbal communication” Discuss the statement.

Ans. See page 77.
Q.4. “Kinesics plays a vital role in communication”. Discuss the statement.
See page 83.
Q.5. Discuss the limitations of body language.
See page 84.
Q.6. Briefly explain the “Sign Language”.
See page 76 and 77.
Q.7. What do you mean by kinesics? Discuss various aspects of kinesics.
. See page 81 and 82.
Q.8. Explain postures and Gestures of the body language.
See page 81.
Q.9. briefly explain the ‘Proxemics”?
See page 78.

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