Unit 1 Information Revolution and Information Technology Bcom Notes
Unit 1 Information Revolution and Information Technology Bcom Notes:- In this post, you will get the notes of B.com 3rd year Information Technology, by reading this post you can score well in the exam, hope that this post has helped you with this post to all your friends and all groups right now I must share it so that every student can read this post and it can also be helped in this post. Information Revolution Information Technology
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Information Revolution and Information Technology
The term ‘informat’ is constituted from ‘formation’. It represents the expression of size and form of particular thinking. Information is the data used for expressing the meaningful reference.
Normally ‘data’ and ‘information’ are used interchangeably. But the relationship between the two is just like the raw material and ‘finished goods’. The information is compiled from data. As the business decisions are taken on the basis of the information, hence the quality of decisions very much depends upon the quality of information.
Characteristics of Information
The mode of communication of information are eyes, ear, hands etc. but in case of business mode should be visual, oral or written. Main characteristics of information are as follows:
(a) Information should have the characteristics of timeliness, redundancy and completeness.
(b) Information must be a definite purpose.
(c) The frequency of availability of data affects the quality of information.
(d) Information is meaningful and should be according to objectives.
(e) The information is dynamic.
(f) Analysis of information is possible.
(g) Translation of information is possible.
(h) Misuse of information is possible.
Information Revolution Information Technology
Computing the informations
Computing the information is based on preliminary investigation of Shainnan and Weever. The information is collected on the basis of bits. The ‘bit’ means “a little’. The information depends on the number of words. In case of small number of words, the probability of the correctness of the information remains about 50 percent. The degree of correctness increase along with increase in the number of words.
Dissemination of Information
For dissemination of information the communicator and the receiver depend on each other. Normally the dissemination of information is completed through the following elements:
- Information: The information contains the data which are used in a particular reference. According to Devis and Olson, information means the data collected in the form being useful for the user and helpful in the process of decision-making.
- Sender: The dissemination of information depends on the sender.
- Encoding: For dissemination, the message is first converted into the code language of the means of communication.
- Channel: The channel of dissemination should be short.
- Medium: The medium of communication should be selected very carefully.
- Receiver: The message sent by the communicator is received and decoded by the receiver.
- Decoding: For decoding the message, the receiver converts the code language into simple language. The process of conversion is known as decoding.
- Feedback: When the message has been received and decoded by the receiver, the sender is informed that the message has been received in its real sense, this is called the process of feedback.
Meaning of Information Technology
Information technology is the technology used to store, manipulate, distribute or create information. The technology is any mechanism capable of processing this data.
History of IT
In 1951, The first professional computer was developed in United Kingdom for Joe Lyons Catering Organisation. This computer is known as ‘Lyons Electronic Office’-LEO.
Convergence of Technology
Convergence of technology brings together all kind of voice, video and data networks.
Convergence of modern technology has moved at rapidly faster than what man had imagined. It’s a new platform for communication that will change not only how we conduct business, but also how we – learn and entertain ourselves.
- Multi-task phones: Mobile phones allow us to talk on the move.
- Pocket PC: Convergence also means that we are closer than ever to placing a desktop computer into our coat pockets.
Basic features or Applications of IT: Information Technology are specially used in the following fields:
- General Use of Computers: Microprocessors which control car’s engine operations, namely air-fuel mixture, ignition timing etc. are used by auto manufactures for efficient operation of the cars. Computers also control door locks, air conditioning, breaking and speed control of vehicles.
- Computers in Banks: Banks use computers to provide online service to customers and to answer customer’s queries regarding their bank balance etc.
- Project Management: A project work has a series of tasks which must be completed within the scheduled time. Computers can be used to manage project work to plan, schedule and control man power, material and other resources needed to complete the project work at specified cost..
- Publication of Books: Authors prepare books using word processing programs. Text is stored on a compact disk after typing. These are then printed using laser printers. Final copy of Laser printers is called the camera ready copy (CRC). These prints are sent to an offset press for printing purposes and then binding is done at the binding centers. The cover pages of the books are made of artists. Alternatively, covers can also be designed using a graphic package such as Corel Draw. The cover is then sent for printing in another type of printing press which is specialized only in colour printing. Thus book publishing is revolutionized by computers.
- Special Effects in Movies: Today, the movie industry uses computers extensively in producing animation and special effects in certain scenes.
- Graphics through Computers: Computers are being used to make drawings, graphics and movies.
- Computers in Hotel Management: IT is being widely used in hotels for storing details and preferences of customers, different recipes available,, taking orders online from the customer and delivering in time as well as storing details of the number of rooms available and their daily rates etc.
- Database Management through Computers: The term database is used to refer to one or more related files. Information can be seen on the computer screen.
- Office Uses: The work done in offices is mostly the preparation of letters, reports, publicity, contracts, forms, notes etc. All these jobs can be performed by computers more cheaply and professionally. Small offices, organizations and institutions can afford to have a workstation because of its low price.
- Computers in Education: In education institutions computers are used as teaching aid, research tool and analyzing system. When computer is used as a teaching aid. It is referred to as computer-assisted instruction (CAI).
- Computer Aided Manufacture-CAM: Computers are used to control production of engineering items, chemical processes etc. Maruti Udyog in India uses such an integrated manufacturing system for the manufacturing and assembly of petrol and diesel cars.
- Computers in Military Operations: Computers are extensively used in defense services. Modern tanks, torpedos, missiles etc. employ computerized control systems.
- Accounting: Specialized software packages such as Tally 5.4 are available to handle accounts in medium sized companies..
- Investment Analysis: Computers are used for analyzing investments for maximum returns. Software packages for such analysis are available at a small price. The user has to enter data and get the results of analysis.
- Computers in Ticket Reservation: Indian railways have computerized ticket reservation in almost all important railway stations.
- E-mail through Computers: Electronic mail (E-mail) is a system whereby computer users exchange messages, greetings etc. with each other via Internet, at a very cheap rate.
- Telephone Exchanges: With the increase of the number of telephone connections, the need arose for automatic control of switching services.
- Mobile Phones: Mobile Phones help us to make and receive calls and services anytime and anywhere.
- Information Kiosks: These are privately owned places where people can make e-mail or surf Internet, play games or do any other personal work on the computer and pay the rent for the time they use the computer facilities.
Impact of IT on Business Environment & Social Fabric
Society can be defined as a community, nation, or broad grouping of people having common traditions, institutions, and collective activities and interests.”
Cultural Continuity: Social attitudes have changed in that citizens of a society now expect the various elements of that society to be better informed than previously.
Institutions: The word institutions can incorporate a wide variety of organizations. Like Governments, Commercial businesses,
News & media organizations, educational organizations.
The focus is on how information technology development has improved the processes by which these institutions accomplish their tasks or goals.
Governments: The government of a nation is comprised of many varied institutions. However developments in information technology have helped governments to improve their “service” to their citizens. Information technology has also had a major impact on the defense capabilities of governments. Advances in weapons technology and weapons design have increased the effectiveness of various governments’ armed forces. Commercial Businesses: The advances in information technology have heavily influenced commercial businesses in several areas. News & Media Organizations: Due to the nature of news and media organizations, information technologies have particular relevance to them.
Educational Organizations: The developments that have occurred in information technology have had many influences on educational establishments.
Collective Activities and Interests: One of the aims of the report is to analyze the influence of information technology on the collective activities and interests of a broad range of people. The phrase “collective activities and institutions” has a wide scope.
Information Revolution Information Technology
Advantages of Information Technology
- Sales Analysis: Computers have added a new dimension to forecast as well as to analyse sales in an organization.
- Training to Employee: Computers are used to carry out training of existing personnel in the organization to take newer challenges emerging due to competition.
- Maintain the Record of Employees: To maintain the records of the employees, the database so generated could be used to keep track of different employees so that the best person can be chosen for a job.
- Helpful in Decision Making: Computers have enabled the business decision makers to be more logical and rational.
- Less Clerical Work: The number of workers required to do clerical jobs has gone down because one worker trained on a computer can do far more work.
- Use of Computers by National & International Corporations: The national and international corporations are using computers to control the production as well as sales and marketing.
Disadvantages of Information Technology
Though there are several benefits, there are some dangers also because of computerization. Some of these dangers to the society are:
- Unemployment: Since the amount of work that a person using computer can do is more than that can be done by a number of persons, computerization may result in reduction of clerical type of jobs.
- Danger to Privacy: Computers store database on all aspects for the citizens of country, such as his economic condition, his bank balance, his record of crimes etc. Thus, as soon as a child is born in a developed nation, he/she gets a personal ID number. This data is updated every time any changes takes place in his/her living.
- Danger to security of database: Customers keep their accounts in the bank in the form of electronic data. They use ATM cards to draw money from the bank.
- Addiction to Computers: It is normally the case with the people that when they get the taste of software packages such as Games, Quizes etc. they get attached to a computer.
Components of Information Technology
Also known as information and communication technology .(ICT), IT is defined as the technology required for information processing. In particular, the use of computer and computer software to convert, store, process, transmit, and retrieve information. In Information technology, we primarily concentrate on the following technologies:
Computer Hardware Technologies: These technologies include microcomputers, mid size servers and large mainframe systems, and the input, output and storage devices that support them. Computer Software Technologies: These technologies include operating system software, web browsers, software productivity suits and software for business applications.
Telecommunication and Network Technologies: These technologies include telecommunications media, processors and software needed to provide wire-based and wireless access and support for Internet and other networks.
Data Resource Management Technologies These: technologies include database management system software for the development, access and maintenance of the databases of an organization.
Many important means are developed for communication in information revolution. These are the following two types:
When we talk with other persons, data and information are transferred. The exchange of data and information called as Oral Communication. Many types of communication systems are used for it. These are given following:
(1) Telephone: We can talk with foreign relatives in our home or office by the telephone. A metal wire are used in this system.
(2) Intercom: Intercom is like a telephone in look. But it can be used for talking with person who live in a building.
(3) Mobile-Phone Facility: Satellite is used in this system. We can talk anywhere by mobile. We can take this phone anyplace because it is wireless due to the use of satellite.
(4) Voice chat by computer: We can transfer our thoughts, information orally using computer. Chatting means talk to each other.
(5) Interactive Television: Interactive television is the modern form of oral communication. This technique is similar like video conferencing. Due to expensive equipment, this is not most popular. Two way cable TV system that enables the viewer to issue commands and give feedback information through an electronic device called a setup box. The viewer can select which program or movie to watch, at what time, and can place orders in response to commercials. New setup boxes also allow access to e-mail and e-commerce applications via internet.
(6) Voice messaging system: Voice mail (also known as voice-mail, VMS, or message bank) is a centralized system of stored telephone messages that can be retrieved by the recipient at a later time. The term is also used more broadly to denote any system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice message, including using an answering machine. Most cell phones have voice mail as a basic feature, and many land line phones and corporate PBXs have their own voice mail options.
(7) Video conferencing: Conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data. For example, a point-to-point (two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video telephone. Each participant has a video camera, microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and delivered to the other’s speakers, and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear in a windows on the other participant’s monitor.
Information Revolution Information Technology
When we write data and information and transfer from one place to other place for communicate to another person, its transfer process is known as written communication. A system which are related to written communication, give following:
(1) Letter: This is a old system. The speed and cost of data and information transfer is very low. But now-a-days use of this is very less.
(2) Fax: We write data and information and transfer one place to another place using this system. In this system, telephone is used. Data can be transferred in very less time.
(3) Pager: Pager is such a device which can accept only information. This system is based on radar system.
(4) E-mail: Computer used in this system. Data has written on a computer and send another computer. Data and information transferred electronically that’s why it is known E-mail.