Unit 3 Computer Based Business Applications Word Processing Bcom Notes
Unit 3 Computer Based Business Applications Word Processing Bcom Notes:- In this post, you will get the notes of B.com 3rd year Information Technology, by reading this post you can score well in the exam, hope that this post has helped you with this post to all your friends and all groups right now I must share it so that every student can read this post and it can also be helped in this post. Computer Business Applications Processing
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Computer-based Business Applications Word Processing
The need for writing is an everyday need. Each one of us needs to present ideas, thoughts, feelings and needs somehow or the other. Often this takes the form of the written word. We prepare documents, letters and projects to express ourselves. Earlier, these documents were either written by hand or typed on typewriters. Both these methods were error prone. The documents needed to be retyped or rewritten each time an error was detected in it. This was time consuming and wasteful. With the advent of the computer, this need was addressed to and a software was developed that could allow you to type and edit a document in realtime, on the computer screen. This was economical in terms of both time and resources. One could type a document, read it on screen and make the necessary changes and then take a printout on the paper. They also allowed you the facility of saving the document for future use, something that was not possible earlier.
This entire process of writing, typing, editing, saving and printing a document is called word processing. We have several software that provide us the facility of word processing, these are called the word processors, MS-Word is a word processor. It allows us to create, edit, print and save documents like reports, memos and even books for future retrieval. MS-Word allow us to enhance and dress up our documents, and present them in a more effective manner.
MS-Word is an application software and member of MS-Office group. MS-Word is a word processing program. It is also WYSIWYG (What-you-see-Is-What-You-Get). It has several versions, like Word 95, Word 97, Word 2000, Word 2002 and MS-Word XP is the latest version. With each version, some new features are included.
Starting MS-Word: Click on the Start button, take the mouse pointer to All Programs and from All Programs menu, select Microsoft Word. The Window of MS-Word will open on the screen.
This window is divided into two parts:
- Application window
- Document window
Application Window: The outer window which has all the bars is known as application window. Application window has many elements. These are the following:
Title Bar: It is displayed at the top of the window. The name of the application and active file are displayed on the left hand side of the bar. On the right hand side, there are three buttons to minimize, maximize and close the window.
You can close the window by clicking the close button. Word program prompts you to save the unsaved work. If you want to save changes, click on Yes button otherwise click on Name button. If there are no changes in the document since it was last saved, the window will close without displaying any message.
Menu Bar: The menu bar has various menu option like File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Table, Window and Help menus. On clicking a menu a list of options drops down. We call it a pull down menu or drop down menu. You may also use the Alt key in combination with the underlined letter of the menu to open the corresponding menu.
Toolbar: There are many types of toolbars available in MS Word.
Standard toolbar is placed below the menu bar. It has some File menu options like New, Open, Save, Print, etc.
Formatting toolbar has some Format menu options like Font, Font size, Bold, Italic, alignment, Colors, etc. Drawing toolbar has buttons or icons which activate tools for you to draw arrows, rectangles. circles, ovals, etc. into the document.
Status Bar: This bar is located at the bottom of the document window. It shows the status like present page number, total number of pages, line number based on cursor position, column number, spelling and grammar check status etc. All these toolbars provide a quick way of performing operations that can be executed from the various menu.
Ruler: Ruler is the measuring tool of a document. There are two type of rulers available.
- Horizontal ruler
- Vertical ruler
Horizontal ruler is used to set the margins within which the text in the document is to be written. To change the left and right margins. point to a margin boundary immediately at the start or end of the white areas on the ruler.
Vertical ruler is used to set the top or bottom margin.
Scroll Bar: Word has two scroll bars-vertical and horizontal scroll bar.
Vertical scroll bar is used to move the document up or down by dragging the scroll box. You can drag the scroll box on the horizontal scroll bar left and right to see the contents on the left and right side of the page, if the page width is more than the screen width. These scroll bars are useful when the document contents are too big to fit in a single window.
Task Pane: Task pane is the place from where you can open existing documents and create new documents. It displays the current program of applications.
Document Window: Document window is the blank white area where you type text, insert pictures, draw lines, circles, rectangles, etc. It is also known as the work area. You can increase or decrease the work area by changing the margins on the rulers.
We can create a document, open document, save, print documents using the File menu. Suppose your teacher asked to make an assignment on the computer, you have to create a new document using the New command.
Working in MS-Word
To prepare the document in MS-Word, We have to following five steps.
- Typing: When you get a new document, you will see a vertica blinking line. This line is known as cursor. When you press a key pressed character is displayed where cursor is positioned. The letters numbers or symbols you type appear on the screen as the cursor move to the right. MS-Word has a special feature word wrap, that means a you type the text, once the current line is full, extra characters move onto the next line automatically. In other word, you do not have press enter key to go to the next line.
You should press the enter key to begin a new paragraph or insen a blank line. So you can type all the data of your assignment in the similar way. After you have entered text, you will need to edit the data But before learning to edit data, you need to know as to how to select text.
- Editing Text: Editing text means correcting the spelling inserting or deleting some words and shifting text from one place to another in document. We will discuss Edit menu and other commands for editing the text later.
- Selecting Text: In MS-Word, you carr select text with the keyboard or the mouse.
Selecting Text With The Keyboard
You can select the text by using some key combinations.
(i) Word: To select a word, anywhere inside the word and double-click the mouse button.
(ii) Line: To select a line point in the selection bar area (then blank vertical bar on the left side of the document window) next to the line and click the mouse button. All the text on that line is selected.
(iii) Sentence: To select the sentence point anywhere inside the sentence. Press and hold the Ctrl key, and then click the mouse button. Release Ctrl Key. End punctuation and trailing spaces are automatically selected along with the sentence.
(iv) Paragraph: To select a paragraph point in the selection bar next to the paragraph and double-click the mouse button. The ending paragraph mark is selected along with the paragraph.
(v) Entire document: To select an entire document choose Edit, 109 Select All. Or point anywhere in the selection bar, press and hold Ctrl, click the mouse button, and then release Ctrl.
(A) Delete the text: You can delete select word, sentence, paragraph or whole document by pressing the ‘Del’ key.
(B) Replacing the text: You can replace old typed word. sentence or paragraph by new text.
(C) Check the spelling: You can check spelling of the typed text
- Formatting: After editing, you should format the text. using the Tool menu. Formatting is setting the font of character, margins of paragraph, page size. Using formatting tool, your document is looking good. You can add the graphic according your need.
- Saving: You have to follow the given steps to save the text permanently on the hard disk.
(i) Click on the Save or Save As option in File menu.
(ii) A dialog box is displayed on the screen. Type the file name in File Name box.
(iii) Click on the Save button.
- Printing a Document: By default, Word prints one copy of the entire active document. You can, however, choose to print the current page only, multiple pages, multiple copies, or selected text. You can also print to a document rather than to a printer, or print non-document items such as Summary Info.
Moving and Copying Text
Another of Word’s power editing features is its ability to move and copy text within a document. You can, for example, quickly and easily move a table of numbers from the top of the fifth page of a business report to the bottom of the 11th page, or copy a four-line address to several different locations within the body of a letter.
The Clipboard: Windows provides a temporary storage are called the Clipboard for those times when you move or copy text. When selected text is cut (removed) or copied, it is placed on the Clipboard. Pasting inserts a copy of the Clipboard contents before the insertion point.
Moving Text: To move text within a document:
- Select the text to be moved.
- Choose Edit, Cut to cut the selected text from the document and place it on the Clipboard.
- Place the insertion point where you want to move the text.
- Choose Edit, Paste (or click on the Paste button) to paste the cut text before the insertion point.
Copying Text: To copy text within a document:
- Select the text to be copied.
- Choose Edit, Copy to copy the selected text to the Clipboard
Place the insertion point where you want to copy this text. Choose Edit, Paste (or click on the Paste button) to paste the Clipboard text before the insertion point.
Text Formatting in Word: After typing and editing, we can format the text to make the document attractive. Setting the page margin, alignment of text, determination of proper size, style of font, selection of colour are including in formatting.
The setting of text according to left or right margin is known as Alignment. It arrange the text properly on page. There are the four type of alignment in MS-Word.
- Centre Align: Select the text which you want to align. Now click on the Center Align tool. Text will be set on centre.
- Left Align: Select the text which you want to align. Now click on the Left Align tool. Text will be set on left. This is a default type of alignment.
- Right Align: Select the text which you want to align. Now click on the Right Align tool. Text will be set on right.
- Justification: Select the text which you want to justified. Now click on the justification tool. Word increases the spacing between words in the selected paragraph to fill each line (except the last line. which is too short) so that the text is even with both the left and right indents.
Border and Shading
We can do make border and shading around the text.
- Borders: The task of making the border around the whole page or paragraph in word is easy task. We select text for border. Now click on Border tool on Formatting toolbar, around the text a border will make.
- Shading: We can make word document attractive and effective using various shades. Select the text for shading. Now click on Shade button, a drop down list will be displayed on the screen. Now click on desired colour. If you want to remove the shade, click on None in the drop down list.
Lotus 1-2-3 is an integrated electronic worksheet (spreadsheet) program developed by MITCHELL KAPOR, founder of Lotus development corporation, USA. It let you create your own worksheet and enter information. It perform all kinds of calculation and displays results on the screen.
An electronic worksheet (or spreadsheet) is used to store information in the memory of a computer, ask the computer to calculate results, and display information and results on the computer screen in a desired manner. In other words, it replaces the normal paper sheet or ledger, pencil (or pen), eraser and calculator. In such a worksheet, information is entered through the keyboard and displayed on the screen. The information already entered in the worksheet can be changed easily. The worksheet calculates results; for instance, it can work out the total sales by multiplying the quantity sold with the unit price. If some information is altered, the worksheet automatically recalculates the results, e.g. if the unit price is changed, it automatically recalculates and displays the new total sales figure. The information entered in the worksheet can also be printed.
To start Microsoft Excel, you have to follow these steps:
- Click on the Start button in the windows environment.
- Select All programs option from the Start menu.
- Select Microsoft Excel option from the Programs submenu. The Microsoft Excel screen is displayed.
(i) Creating a new workbook: This command is used to create a new workbook. When you click this option, a new workbook opens.
(ii) Move and scroll in workbook:
|One row above or down||Click on the arrow in the vertical scroll bar.|
|One row left or right||Click in the arrow in the horizontal scroll bar.|
|One window above or below||Click on scroll box in the vertical scroll bar.|
|One window above or left||Click on the left or right scroll box in the horizontal scroll bar.|
|A large distance||Hold shift key and drag it.|
(iii) Open a workbook: This command is used to open the existing workbook. For example: Suppose your computer contains a MS-Excel file named, ‘Student.xls.”, to open this file, you have to follow these steps:
Step 1: Click on File Open. A dialog box appears on the screen.
Step 2: Now select the file name in the same way as you do for MS Word.
Step 3: Click on Open button. “Student.xls’ file will be opened.
(iv) Insert a worksheet: A new workbook opens with 16 sheets name Sheet 1 through Sheet 16. The user can easily Insert a sheet. The maximum no. of sheets that can be inserted is dependent on the available memory.
For inserting a sheet: Select a sheet (before which a new sheet has to be inserted) by clicking the sheet tab and choosing the Insert, Worksheet command.
A new worksheet is therefore and becomes the active sheet. To insert several sheets at once the user can select the number of sheets to be inserted and then choose the Insert, Worksheet command.
(v) Rename the Worksheet: To rename worksheet, you have to follow these steps:
- Double-clicking the tab of the sheet to be renamed.
- Type the new name (upto 31 chars) in the dialog box,
- The new name appears on the sheet tab.
(vi) Move or copy worksheet: Sheets in the workbook can be re-arranged by moving them. Sheets can be moved within the workbook or to another workbook.
Before we start performing mathematical operations on our data, we need to know the method of instructing the computer to calculate different functions. We need to put these instructions in specific cells and is known as the cell addressing method. There are different “methods to use the cell address depending on the kind of calculations that are needed.
- Relative address,
- Absolute address,
- Mixed address
- Relative Address Method: In this address system, we refer to the cells without fixing either the columns or the rows. These are refrences to cell relative to the position of the formula. When you copy a formula that uses relative references, MS-Excel automatically adjusts the references in the pasted formula to refer to different cells relative to the position of the formula.
- Absolute Address Method: It is also called absolute references, which are cell references that always refer to cells in a specific location. If a dollar sign precedes the letter and/or number, such as $A$1, the column and/or row reference is absolute, In this method, cell address does not change in a formula even if you copy it to other cells. For cell address fixing, we have to use $ sign before row and column number.
- Mixed Address Method: It is combination of both relative and absolute addresses. Every cell address has two co-ordinates. One is column and other is row. Mixed address has one absolute coordinate and one relative coordinate. You can fix either the column or the row. Once you copy the formula at another place, the address changes accordingly. The absolute value remains unchanged while the relative ones change. If you want to change only the column in any calculation, you have to use mixed address method.
These are in-built formulas that perform calculations by using arguments. Arguments are values which we use in functions. There are many categories of functions. We will discuss them one by one.
Mathematical and Trignometrical Functions
These functions perform mathematical operations. Some commonly used mathematical functions are given below.
ABS (Number): It returns the absolute value of number.
EXP (Number): It returns e raised to the power of number.
FACT (Number): It returns the factorial of a number.
INT (Number): It rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
MOD (Number, Divisor): It returns the remainder after the number is divided by divisor. Here Number is the number for which you want to find the remainder. Divisor is the number by which you want to divide number.
POWER (Number, Power): It returns the result of a number raised to power. Number is the base number. Power is the exponent to which the base number is raised. The operator can be used instead of POWER to indicate to what power the base number is to be raised, such as in 5^2.
PRODUCT (Number 1, Number 2): It multiplies all the numbers gives as arguments and returns the product.
QUOTIENT (Numerator, Denominator): It returns the integer portion of a division. This function is used when you want to discard the remainder of a division.
ROUND (Number, Num Digits): It rounds a number to a specified number of digits..
SQRT (Number): It returns a positive square root.
SUM (Number 1, Number 2): It adds all the numbers in a range of cells.
COS (Number): It returns the cosine of the given angle.
SIN (Number): It returns the sine of given angle. TAN (Number): It returns the tangent of the given angle.
These functions are used to perform statistical operations. Some commonly used statistical functions are given below.
AVERAGE (Number, Number 2…): It returns the average of the given arguments.
COUNT (Value, Value 2…): It counts the number of cells that contain number and also number within the list of arguments.
MAX (Number 1,1 Number 2…): It returns the largest value in a set of values.
MIN (Number 1, Number 2…): It returns the smallest value in a set of values.
Text and Data Functions
These are some of the text functions given below.
LEN (Text): It returns the number of characters in a text string.
CHAR (Number): It returns the character specified by a number.
CONCATENATE (Text 1, Text 2…): It joins several text strings into one text string.
LEFT (Text, Num-Chars): It returns the first character or character in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify.
LOWER (“Text”): It converts all uppercase letter in a text string to lowercase.
MID (Text, Start, Num, Num-Chars): It returns a specific number of character from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Here Text is the text string containing the characters you want to extract. Start num is the position of the first character you want to extract in text. Num chars specifies the number of character you want MID to return from text.
RIGHT (Text, Num Chars): It returns the last character or character in a text string, based on the number you specify.
UPPER (“Text”): It converts text to uppercase.
There are the logical function also available which given below.
AND (Logical 1, Logical 2): It returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE. It returns FALSE if one or more argument in FALSE,
IF (Logical Test, Value If True, Value If False): It returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE.
NOT (Logical): It reverses the value of its argument. Logical is a value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. If logic is FALSE, NOT returns TRUE. If logic is TRUE, NOT returns FALSE. OR (Logical 1, Logical 2…): It returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE, It returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE,
Date and Time Function
These functions are used for getting date, time, month, day, year, etc. Following are some date and time functions.
DATE (Year, Month, Day): It returns the sequential serial number that represents a particular date. If the cell format was General before the functions was entered, the result is formatted as a date.
Day (Serial Number Or “Date”): It returns the day of a date, represented by a serial number. The day is given as integer ranging from 1 to 31.
MONTH (Serial Number Or “Date”): It returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. The month is given as an integer ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December).
YEAR (Serial Number Or “Date: It returns the year corresponding to a date. The year is returned as an integer in the range 1900-9999.
TODAY(): It returns the current date set on the computer. This function has no arguments.
NOW(): It returns the current date and time set on the computer. This functions also has no argument.
TIME (Hour, Minute, Second): It return the serial number for a particular time. If the cell format was General before the function was entered, the result is displayed in the form of decimal number. 99999999, representing the times from 0: 00: 00 (12:00:00 AM) to 23:59:59 (11:59:59 PM).
HOUR (Serial Number Or Time): It returns the hour of a time value. The hour is given as an integer, ranging from 0 (12:00A.M.) to 23 (11:00 P.M.).
MINUTE (Serial Number Or “Time”): The returns the minutes of a time value. The second is given as an integer, ranging from 0 to 59.
SECOND (Serial Number Or “Time”): It returns the second of a time value. The second is given as an integer in the range 0 to 59.
Goal Seek and Solver
The real power in Excel comes in its ability to perform multiple mathematical calculations for you. One of the tools in Excel that you can use to perform these calculations is a Data tool called What-l Analysis. What-If analysis allows you to see the effect that different values have in formulas. Have you ever thought, “What interest rate do I need to qualify for to have a car payment of $400 on the car I want? This question can be answered using What-If Analysis.
There are three What-If analysis tools that you can use. To access these, select the Data tab, and locate the What-If Analysis command. If you click this command, a menu with three options appears. Goal seek is useful if you know the needed result, but need to find the input value that will give you the desired result. In this example, we know the desired result (a $400 monthly payment), and are seeking the input value (the interest rate).
To use Goal Seek to Determine an Interest Rate:
Select the Data tab.
Locate the Data Tools group.
Click the What-If Analysis command. A list of three options appears.
Select Goal Seek. A small dialog box appears.
Select the cell that you want to set to a specific value. In this example, we want to set B5, the Payment cell.
Insert the cursor in the next field.
Enter a value in the value field. In this example, type-$400. Since we’re making a payment that will be subtracted from our loan amount, we have to enter the payment as a negative number.
Insert the cursor in the next field.
Select the cell that you want to change. This will be the cell that tries various input values. In this example, select cell B4, which is the interest rate. Click OK.
Then, click OK again. The interest rate appears in the cell. This indicates that a 7% interest rate will give us a $400 a month payment on a $20,000 loan that is paid off over 5 years, or 60 months.
The Goal Seek command is handy for problems that involve an exact target value that depends on a single unknown value. For problems that are more complex, you should use the Solver add-in. The Solver can handle problems that involve many variable cells and can help you find combinations of variables that maximize or minimize a target cell. It also specifies one or more constraints-conditions that must be met for the solution to be valid.
The Solver is an add-in. If the Solver button does not appear on the Data tab on the Ribbon, click the Microsoft Office Button, Excel Options, Add-Ins category, and then click the Go button. Then select the Solver Add-In check box, and click OK to install it. Click Yes to confirm that you want to install the Solver add-in.
Wings Accounting is the finest software available today for businesses of all kinds. It offers the best in technology, design, architecture, features and functionality. Wings Accounting sets new standards in financial accounting as it helps you go beyond vanilla accounting and do much more. Broadly:
Completely web-based, helps you setup web-based, online system across your branches, warehouses, factories, etc. And allow you to connect to your accounts from anywhere – your home, while travelling.
Tally is an Integrated Enterprise Solution with Complete Accounting, Inventory and Reporting capabilities. Tally provides a total solution that helps you to manage your accounts and inventory.
Quite simply, accounting is a language: a language that provides information about the financial position of an organization. When you study accounting you are essentially learning this specialized language. By learning this language you can communicate and understand the financial operations of any and all types of organizations.
Tally is an accounts and inventory management software which is having many other features too.
Features of Tally: There are the important features of tally:
(A) General Features
- Concurrent Multi-lingual capability: It allows you to expand your business beyond geographical boundaries without worrying about language barriers. You can maintain your accounts in one language, view reports in another language and send invoices to your customers in yet another language, all at the press of a button.
- Payroll: Lets you automate the management of your employee records including visa and employment contract management. This feature also offers automatic calculation of salaries and pay slip generation.
- Job Costing: It enables you to generate profitability statements for each project executed, including financial and material resource appointments, wherever applicable..
- Flexible Financial Periods: It allows you to inflexible accounting break away from years and perform all accounting functions in Tally for time-periods that suit your convenience.
- Unlimited Companies: It allows you to create and maintain up to 99.999 companies, concurrently.
- Data Synchronisation: It helps you synchronise and update data across multiple locations. This enables fast and easy exchange of business information, between offices and branches, across various geographies.
- Consolidation of Companies: It enables grouping of companies and provides consolidated reports. Changes done in any constituent or branch company are automatically updated in the grouped information,
- Unlimited levels of classification: It facilitates ledger classification and re-classification as required. It also enables easy viewing and analysis of information, thus helping you makes informed decisions.
- Drill Down Facility : It helps you drill down or instantly update from any report starting from the Balance Sheet down to Vouchers, or vice versa.
(B) Accounting Features
- Accounting without CODES: lets you define unlimited levels of classification, with regular names (no more inconvenient account codes), so that you can manage the most complex ledgers with case.
- Job Costing Unified Ledgers: It integrates your journal, sales and purchase ledgers into a single ledger, organised in groups, for easy management.
- Complete Bookkeeping: It enables you to record all types of transactions including receipts, payments, income and expenses, sales and purchases, debit notes, credit notes, adjustment journals, memorandum journals and reversing journals. Transaction data entry through unique voucher entry is easy and flexible to configure, for diverse types of transactions.
- Comprehensive Accounting: Lets you instantly obtain your balance sheets, profit & loss statements, cash and funds flows, trial balances, and others.
- Multi-currency Accounting: It offers you flexibility of multiple currencies in the same transaction and allows viewing of all reports in one or more currency. Tally meets the fundamental criteria set out for EMU handling.
- Receivables and Payables: It enables you to dynamically allocate payments against invoices with reference to due dates. Get reports that are classified, grouped, and aged to your definitions, Generate customisable reminders, for over dues.
- Payment Performance of Debtors: It helps you identify troublesome debtors and persistent late payers, thereby helping you take the right decision.
- Ratio Analysis: Offers you a bird’s eye view of your company, through a single sheet performance analysis, based on a range of key performance ratios.
- Budgeting: It gives you unlimited budgets and periods. For example, original and revised budgets.
- Security Control: It enables you to define security levels for access control.
- Powerful Audit capabilities: It allows you to trace malafide changes, while making genuine corrections with unparalleled ease. 12. Unlimited Cost/Profit Centers with power project oriented reporting: It gives you multi-dimensional analysis and comparatives, with an unlimited classification of analysis criteria.
- Interest Calculation: It enables you to calculate interest on dues, loans etc., based on certain set criteria or specified dates and time periods. You can also customize the calculation of interest to change after a certain time period, or based on other pre-defined conditions.
(C) Inventory Features
- Multi-location Stock Control: It helps you manage simple single-location, or complex multi-location stocks, with unlimited classification systems for your items, and your own units of measure.
- Sales & Purchase Orders: It enables you to record orders with a complete cycle of recording and allocation through inventory deliveries, invoicing and accounting maintaining the trail right through. Single sheet reports give you details of current stocks, orders due for delivery, orders due for receipt, or shortfalls, if any. You can also get party-wise or item-wise details of orders outstanding and/or fulfilled.
- Invoicing: It allows you to print, export, e-mail or publish sales invoices that are produced, directly from Tally. This comprehensive invoicing system allows flexible handling of charges and taxes. You can choose from different invoice formats and adopt them as your own, or have a completely different layout designed.
- Reorder Levels: It allows for user-defined Reorder levels for any given period thus helping you avoid excess stocking of items while ensuring that you don’t run out of essential stock.
- Multiple Price Levels: It allows you to pre-define item rates for specific categories of customers, enabling faster and error-free invoicing and data entry.
A database is an integrated collection of logically related records and files. It consolidates records previously stored in independent files so that it serves as a common pool of data to be accessed by many different application programs.
Definitions of DBMS: According to Holden Paule, E. “A DBMS is the tool that computer use to achieve the processing and orderly storage of data.”
Relational Database is a such type of database which are based on relational model. According this model data will be stored in various tables. We need attributes for formation of tables. These attributes is known as field. Data is stores as records in every table. Record is called as Tuple.
For Example: If we store following data of student of a class, we can represented Student table following types:
|Roll No.||Name||Age||Percentage||Position in Class|
If we divide table (Relation) into rows and columns, a row of table is known as a record or tuple and a column of table is known as attribute.
The total number of attributes or field is known as degree of the table. For example-The degree of ” Student Table” is five. Total
number of row of table is Cardinality. If any table has ten rows, cardinality will be 10.
Keys: A key is a table-column used to identify some required rows from a table.
Super Key: An Attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies each entity in a table.
Candidate Key: A minimal super key. A candidate key may be described as a super key without the redundancies and that does not contain a subset of attributes that is itself is a super key,
Primary Key: A candidate key selected to uniquely identify all the other attributes values in any given row and cannot contain null entries. For example Roll No. can be a primary key in Student table. Primary key should be unique.
Secondary Key: An Attribute (or combination of attributes) used strictly for data retrieval purposes.
Foreign Key: An Attribute (or combination of attribute) in one table whose values must either match the primary key in another table or be null. Foreign key is used to make the relation between two tables.
Meaning of RDBMS
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E.F. Codd. Most popular commercial and open source database currently in use are based on the relational database model.
RDBMS data is structured in database tables, fields and records. Each RDBMS table consists of database table rows. Each database table row consists of one or more database table fields.
RDBMS store the data into collection of tables, which might be related by common fields (database table columns). RDBMS also provide relational operators to manipulate the data stored into the database tables. Most RDBMS use SQL as database query language.
Microsoft Access is a powerful window based Relational Database Management System. With Microsoft Access yo can easily:
Create a wide variety of both stand-alone tables and databases Add to or edit databases by filling in the blanks. Search for and display information in many formats.Generate printed reports and mailing labels in a variety of formats and sizes automatically perform mathematical calculations on numerical data in your database incorporate the results of calculations in printed reports and store the results for future use in applications such as balance sheets
Creating A Database
In Access, the first step is to create a database. It will contain all data-tables and other information related to an application. A Microsoft Access database can contain six types of objects.
Tables that store data
Queries that extract from one or more tables
Forms that display data from tables or queries
Reports that summarize and present data from tables and queries
Macros that help you to automate frequently used steps
Modules that store Access Basic program code, the programming language supported by MS Access
All databases in Access have an extension. MDB. Even if you create a single table with no other objects with it, you have to create an .MDB, file.
To create a database:
Click on the New Database option in the File Menu. Or
Click on the first button in the tool bar.
The New database dialog box appears. Type in the database name. The Database Window appears.