Theories of Communication and Audience Analysis
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Discuss the various theories of communication.
- Ans. A theory is a set of statements, including some law like generalisations. So far as social sciences are concerned, we do not have fully formalized well-articulated theories, but we do have some
partially formalized theories.
In communication, we have many theories. The atmosphere, limitations and assumptions under which message is transmitted are known as theories of communication. Theories of communication can be classified in two ways:
1. Theories propounded to create socio-cultural environments.
2. Theories based on the ideas of different scholars.
THEORIES PROPOUNDED TO CREATE SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS
(A) Communist Theory of Communication: This theory follows the principles of communism. It was propounded in 1917 in USSR. This theory is based on the following principles :
(i) The voice ofworkers will be heard prominently.
(ii) Opposition should be made against the exploitation of man by man.
(iii) Public will Play supreme role in construction of a strong nation.
(iv) Interest ofnation will remain supreme.
This theory was not only followed in USSR, but in China and other co ries too.
(B) Islamic theory of Communication : This theory follows the conservative principles of muslims. It is based on ‘Quran’ the religious book of muslims. This theory follows the preachings of Moham d Sahab. This “theory is popular ‘mostly in Muslim countris.
(C) Chinese theory of communication : This theory laid emphasis on respect, dedications and faithfullness towards the nation. Instead of revolution, peace is the main story of the whole communication policy. Chinese theory of communication is based on India’sprinciples of Panchsheel.
(D) hristian theory of communication : This theory is bas on free thinking, personal freedom and dedication towards God. It is very popular theory which serve as the foundation of communication system in the Europian countries. It is based on humansensitivity and service quality in a Tuan. This theory emphasis that any newthing conducive to human welfare should be communicated
to the people.
(E) Vedic theory of communication : This theory is based on ‘Vedas’ the religious books of Hindus. It is also know as the oldest theory of communication. This theory considers and recognises Indian culture and traditions and is based upon traditional values. It is based on ‘Guru-Disciple’ form of education.
(F) Conservative theory of communication : This theoryemphasis one way communication based on the pretext of religion and caste. Many restrictions are imposed communication and people can not express their ideas freely. Restrictions is im posed on people’s movements, their education and their way of
living. The women are not allowed to act on their own.
(G) Liberal theory of communication : This theory supports the full freedom of communication. The people have full freedom to communicate their ideas and message against govern
ment and society. The women are allowed to act on their own.
THEORIEOIARS BASED ON THE IDEAS OF SCHOLARS
(A) Aristotle’s theory of communication’: This theory was propounded by social scientist Aristotle. This theory states that persuasive techniques of communication, can change the thinking
process of the receiver. Sender, message and receiver are the main Componer+s ofcommunication. This theory gave main importance to sender is the source of communication. Thus, it is a one sided
(B) Laswell’s theory Of communication : This theory was supported by Laswell and is also considered as one sided theory. It also laid emphasis on gender. This theory states that the sender can
change the thinking process of the receiver by using appropriate channel of communication.
(C) Shammon and Weaver’s theory of communication: This theory was introduced by Shammon and Weaver. This theory says that message should never be transmitted in its raw form. Message should first be encoded and then transmitted to the receiver so that he is in a position to understand the message. This theory also laid emphasis on feedback and realized the presence of noise.
(D) Katz-Lazars field theory of communication: This theory was introduced mainly for mass communication; therefore it is also known as mass communication theory. According to this
theory, sender encode the message and transmit it by some appropriate channel to an opinion leader. This leader relays this message to the public. Message, sender and the group leader are the
three main component of this theory.
(E) Berol’s theory of communication: This theory gave emphasis on perception. This theory states that sender encodes the message and transmits it with the help of suitable channel. How the
message is received, depends upon the knowledge and perception of receiver. Perception of receiver plays a vital role in this theory.
(F) Modern theory of communication: Modern theory of communication presents the communication process in a cycle form. Accordingly to this theory, message is transmitted to receiver and
receiver expresses his response after receiving the message. In such a way information or message is transmitted by sender to receiver and in the form of feedback receiver to sender again. However, some
obstacles in communication process may cause communication loss. ese obstacles create problems in understanding the message.
Q. 11. What do you understand by Audience Analysis? Clarify its objectives and types.
Ans. Meaning of Audience Analysis: In communication process, the person who receives the message is known as audience. He is the point of entire communication process. Communication is completed only when the receiver understands the message in the same sense and spirit that the sender intends to convey. In order make successful transmission of messages, it is necessary to know
about the audience’s habits, perceptions, beliefs, sentiments and attitudes etc. which affect the communication motives directly. Collection and study of information’s regarding audiences such that who the audience are, what are their habits and emotions, what is their status or knowledge etc. is known as audience analysis. To make the communication effective it is essential to analyze the audience in a systematic and sensitive way.
OBJECTS OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
Analysis regarding awareness of audience in communication depends upon mainly following four questions, which are also known as objects of audience analysis :
(1) Audience coverage : First object of audience analysis is to get information about the coverage of audience i.e. How Many audience are included in the diameter citation ? Which
section, area or class of audience comes in the access of communication? Etc. This is also known as Audience Reach.
(2) Audience Response: The second object of audience analysis is to get information whether
message in its true sense or not. How they react about the message? Is the response according to our expectation? Whether the audience has positive attitude etc.
(3) Communication Impact: The third object of communication is to know the impact of communication on the audience. Has communiéÄCfÖFifäd@Ä7fäfféét-oTthé audience? Are attitude and
thinking of the audience positively affected? etc.
(4) Process of influence: Which process is used to influence the audience? Which communication medium is used effectively in n etc. are studied in the process of influence. The communication.
VARIOUS STEPS OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS (Theories Communication Audience Analysis )
audience analysis is very important to make the communication effective. Steps of audience analysis may be summarized as follows: (1) collection of information regarding size and composition of Audience: First step of audience analysis is to collect information about the size and composition of audience group. Different type of audiences has different attitudes therefore different communication techniques are used for different audience group. The sender of the message should have knowledge whether the audiences are in small group or in large group as more diversity is found in large group. The sender is also to be understood is advance
regarding the common traits in all groups like age, sex, class, status etc.
(2) Locating the primary audience: Primary audience is message is sent. Therefore it is nepenthe real person for who sary to know, who primary audience as there is need to collect more
and more information about him.
(3) Probably reaction of audience: To serve the real purpose of communication, it is necessary to know about the probable reaction of audience. To get the positive response, audience should
be acquainted regarding suggestions and conclusions of the message. Authentic proofs should be presented before the audience to get the positive response.
(4) To get information about the understanding level of audience: For the effective communication it is necessary to get information about the knowledge, experience and. I.Q. level of
audience. If audience’s perception does not relate with the background of the message, then it is desirable to educate the audience.
(5) To know relationship with audience: The last step in audience analysis. is to know about the relationship of sender and audience. Style of-message and way of presentation get affected by
the position of the sender in the organization and his relationship with the audience. Communication style with well known persons is quite different in comparison to communication with strangers.
In the family set up, one can straight forward ask the reaction of the message, but if the audience is stranger, then they have to be taken into confidence to get their positive response.
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Who is Audience? Discuss the various types of Audience.
Ans. Generally, it is believed that one, who listens, is audience, but in the communication audience is the person to whom a message is sent. In simple words, audience is the receiver of the In a
communication process, there may be five types of audience as under:
(1) Initial Audience: The person who receives a message first and transmit it to others is known as initial audience. He is also known as “Carrier Audience.”
(2) Gate Keeper Audience: The person who decides whether message should be delivered to the primary audience or not, is known as Gate keeper Audience. He is the person, who has the
power to stop the message from reaching to the primary audience.
(3) Primary Audience: He is the real person for whom the message is sent. He has the authority to express his reaction on the message. Primary audience has the power to accept or refuse the suggestions of the sender.
(4) Secondary Audience: Secondary Audience becomes active only after the approval ofmessage by primary audience. He may be asked to comment or to act on the message by the primary audience.
(5) Watching audience: Watching audience keeps an eye on the communication between sender and primary audience. He has no power to stop the message or to act directly. After evaluating the
message, he expresses his reaction in future.
Theories of Communication and Audience Analysis